From Knights to Dreamers
THE JOURNEY OF OUR UTAH DALTON FAMILY
FROM EARLY 1100 AD to 2007 AD and BEYOND
Author and Compiler
RODNEY GARTH DALTON
With the help of
ARTHUR REXFORD WHITTAKER
Researched by the Dalton Family Research Group of Utah
CHAPTER ONE – Our Dalton family in Lancashire England
CHAPTER TWO – Our Dalton family in Ireland
CHAPTER THREE – Our Dalton Family in Oxfordshire England
CHAPTER FOUR – Our Dalton Family in South Wales
CHAPTER FIVE – Thomas Dalton Comes To America From Wales
CHAPTER SIX - John Dalton Sr. born in America
CHAPTER SEVEN - The History of John Dalton’s Sons
CHAPTER EIGHT - The History of the Dalton Family in Utah
CHAPTER NINE - The Dalton family settles in Circleville Utah.
CHAPTER TEN - Garth C. Dalton moves to Ogden Utah
CHAPTER ELEVEN - Some of our Dalton Wives
CHAPTER TWELVE - Dalton In-laws & Related Families
CHAPTER THIRTEEN - Our Dalton Family in Nauvoo
CHAPTER FOURTEEN - Early Ancestors of Some of Our Dalton Wives
CHAPTER FIFTEEN - How Our Dalton Family Connects to the Royal Houses
CHAPER SIXTEEN - Vikings and Dalton Connection
CHAPTER SEVENTEEN - The History of John Doyle Lee
CHAPTER EIGHTEEN - Anne Radcliff's Ancestors
CHAPTER NINETEEN - Roger Dalton's Connections to King Henry II
CHAPTER TWENTY - History of the Medieval Wives' Families
The story of the Viking and Dalton Connection:
Descendants of Fornjot the Viking, King of Finland who lived in the Sixth Century AD.
Researched, compiled, indexed and copied from various sources by Rodney G. Dalton.
Of note there is some duplication about the Radcliffe family and you will read through a lot of history before you get to the Dalton family. This history is another way our Dalton family is connected by marriage to the Vikings of Scandinavia and the Royal families in Europe. It’s as close as I could get it. This is fun reading about the stories about the Viking’s and the English Royalty.
A genealogy report of the ancestors of Rodney Dalton.
Family Tree Maker.com Internet search files.
LDS Ancestry File, Internet search files.
LDS FHL Ancestry record.
Kindred Konnections, internet search files.
Rootsweb.com, Internet search files.
A search on the Internet of hundreds of personal users gedcom files submitted to record.
Various Genealogical Web search sites.
The histories of the English Royalty, many sites on the Internet.
The Dalton Family Research Group records.
Rod Dalton 's personal genealogy files.
The Dalton Genealogical Society Journal.
The Catholic Encyclopedia.
The British Monarchy.
Many hours searching the Internet.
Index to Royal Genealogical Data, University of Hull, UK.
ICELANDIC SAGAS, and other historical documents relating to the settlements and descents of the Northmen on THE BRITISH ISLES, VOL III: THE ORKNEYINGERS' SAGA, with appendices; translated by Sir G. W. Dasent, printed for Her Majesty's stationery office, London, 1894.
Fornjot, King of Finland and Kvenland. He lived in the Sixth Century.
Born about 530
THERE was a king named Fornjot, he ruled over those lands which are called Finland and Kvenland; that is to the east of that bight of the sea which goes north- ward to meet Gandvik; that we call the Helsingbight. Fornjot had three sons; one was named Hler, whom we call Aegir, the second Logi, the third Kari; he was the father of Frost, the father of Snow the old, his son's name was Thorri; he (Thorri) had two sons, one was named Norr and the other Gorr; his daughter's name was Goi.
Thorri was a great sacrificer, he had a sacrifice every year at midwinter; that they called Thorri's sacrifice; from that the month took its name. One winter there were these tidings at Thorri's sacrifice, that Goi was lost and gone, and they set out to search for her, but she was not found. And when that month passed away Thorri made them take to sacrifice, and sacrifice for this, that they might know surely where Goi was hidden away. That they called Goi's sacrifice, but for all that they could hear nothing of her. Four winters after those brothers vowed a vow that they would search for her; and so share the search between them, that Norr should search on land, but Gorr should search the outscars and islands, and he went on board ship. Each of those brothers had many men with him. Gorr held on with his ships out along the sea-bight, and so into Alland's sea; after that he views the Swedish scars far and wide, and all the isles that lie in the East salt sea; after that to the Goth- land scars, and thence to Denmark, and views there all the isles; he found there his kinsmen, they who were come from Hler the old out of Hler's isle and he held on then still with his voyage and hears nothing of his sister. But Norr his brother bided till snow lay on the heaths, and it was good going on snow-shoon. After that he fared forth from Kvenland and inside the sea-bight, and they came thither where those men were who are called Lapps, that is at the back of Finmark. But the Lapps wished to forbid them a passage, and there arose a battle; and that might and magic followed Norr and his men; that their foes became as swine5, as soon as they heard the war-cry and saw weapons drawn, and the Lapps betook them-selves to flight. But Norr fared thence west on the Keel, and was long out, so that they knew nothing of men, and shot beasts and birds for meat for themselves; they fared on till they came where the waters turned to the westward from the fells. Then they fared along with the waters, and came to a sea; there before them was a firth as big as it were a sea-bight; there were mickle tilths, and great dales came down to the firth. There was a gathering of folk against them, and they straightway made ready to battle with Norr, and their quarrel fared as was to be looked for. All that folk either fell or fled, but Norr and his men overcame them as weeds over cornfields. Norr fared round all the firth and laid it under him, and made himself king over those districts that laythere inside the firth. Norr tarried there the summer over till it snowed upon the heaths; then he shaped his course up along the dale, which goes south from the firth; that firth is now called Drontheim. Some of his men he lets fare the coast way round Maeren; he laid under him all whither so ever he came. And when he comes south over the fell that lay to the south of the dalebight, he went on still south along the dales, until he came to a great water which they called Mjösen. Then he turns west again on to the fell, because it had been told him that his men had come off worsted before that king whose name was Sokni. Then they came into that district which they called Valders. Thence they fared to the sea, and came into a long firth and a narrow, which is now called Sogn; there was their meeting with Sokni, and they had there a mickle battle, because their witchcraft had no hold on Sokni. Norr went hard forward, and he and Sokni came to hand- strokes. There fell Sokni and many of his folk.
After that Norr fared on into the firth that goes north from Sogn. There Sokni had ruled before in what is now called Sokni's dale. There Norr tarried a long time, and that is now called Norafirth. There came to meet him Gorr his brother, and neither of them had then heard anything of Goi. Gorr too had laid under him all the outer land as he had fared from the south, and then those brothers shared the lands between them. Norr had all the mainland, but Gorr shall have all those isles between which and the mainland he passes in a ship with a fixed rudder. And after that Norr fares to the Uplands, and came to what is now called Heidmörk [now Hedemark]; there that king ruled whose name was Hrolf of the Hill; he was the son of Svadi the giant from north of thc Dovrefell. Hrolf had taken away from Kvenland Goi, Thorri's daughter; he went at once to meet Norr, and offered him single combat; they fought long together and neither was wounded. After that they made their quarrel up, and Norr got Hrolf's sister, but Hrolf got Goi to wife. Thence Norr turned back to the realm which he had laid under him, that he called Norway; he ruled that realm while he lived, and his sons after him, and they shared the land amongst them, and so the realms began to get smaller and smaller as the kings got more and more numerous, and so they were divided into provinces.
Gorr had the isles, and for that he was called a sea-king; his sons were they Heiti and Beiti, they were sea-kings and mighty overbearing men. They made many inroads on the realm of Norr's sons, and they had many battles, and now one, now the other won the day. Beiti ran into Drontheim and warred there; he lay where it is now called Beitsea and Beitstede; thence he made them drag his ship from the innermost bight of Beitstede, and so north over Elduneck, that is where the Naumdales come down from the north. He sat himself on the poop and held the tiller in his hand, and claimed for his own all that land that then lay on the larboard, and that is many tilths and much land. Heiti, Gorr's son, was father of Sveidi the sea- king, the father of Halfdan the old, the father of Ivar of the Uplanders'. Earl, the father of Eystein the noisy, the father of Earl Rögnvald the mighty and the wise in council.
According to a Icelandic saga, the first and greatest King of Finland was Fornjot “the ancient giant”. Also the Heimskringla saga of Sweden mentions the giant kings of Finland. It might also be hypothesized that Fornjot is the same character as King Kalev of the Estonian mythos - both were giants and had mighty gigantic sons.
Born about 550
Born about 570
Children: Snow the Old
Snow the Old
Born about 590
Thorri, King of Finland
Born about 610
Gorr, the Sea King, Conqueror of the Islands.
Born about 640
Born about 670
SVEIDI “The Sea King” a VIKING NORSE KING was born about 703 in Raumsdal, Norway.
Notes for Sveidi the Viking:
The Vikings or Norsemen, came from Scandinavia, the countries we now know as Norway, Denmark, and Sweden. They raided and explored the world from A.D. 789-1100.
The Vikings excellence in sailing allowed them to dominate much of northern Europe. Did you know that they sailed by the wisdom of the sky? They used the position of the stars to guide them. Their skilled craftsmanship allowed them to trade in many lands producing great riches for them.
Most Viking families lived all together in homes called long houses. The family might include children, parents, and grandparents. A fire pit in the center of the house served for cooking and heating purposes. Their homes had no chimneys so the smoke from the fire escaped through a small hole in the roof. Wealthy Vikings bought huge tapestries to decorate their walls, which also served to keep out the cold.
Most families lived on their farms raising their own crops and animals. A Viking sailor might spend part of the year fishing and raiding and spend the rest of the year staying at home and taking care of his farm. Large families were tended to by slaves, either Viking or captured on a raid. Scandinavia was such a mountainous country that it made farm life quite difficult.
It has been over a thousand years since the Vikings sailed the high seas and today their exquisite warships are still a topic of great regard. Their ships were long and often called long ships or dragon ships. Can you imagine looking up to see one of the fierce ships coming in the direction of your village? The head of the dragon was carved at the bow and the tail of the creature at the stern. Historians believe that some of the Viking warriors made it as far as the American continent 500 years before Columbus. It's amazing when you consider how far they traveled. All their navigation was done without the help of instruments that a ship's captain would use today.
Their favorite weapons were swords, spears, and battle axes. A Viking iron sword was long and most often the hilt was beautifully decorated. They became known as terrible raiders who even went so far as to attack monasteries.
Sometime around 1100, the Vikings settled down to farming and fishing and gave up their pagan religion to accept Christianity. Today they are best remembered for their sharp navigation skills and their magnificent lore of shipbuilding.
Child of SVEIDI, the VIKING is:
9. HALFDAN I “Fretr” SVEIDISSON, b. 736.)
Child of HALFDAN SVEIDISSON I is:
HALFDAN "The Old" HALFDANSSON II was born about 762, Norway.
10. HALFDAN “The Old” HALFDANSSON II of NORWAY, born about 762 in Norway.
When he was younger he was called Halfdan the Mild and he was reported to be generous, and to give his men as much gold as other kings gave of silver, but he starved them in their diet. He was a great warrior, who had been long on Viking cruises, and had collected great property. He was married to Liv, a daughter of King Dag of Westmare. Holtar (Read Habost) in Westfold, was his chief house; and he died there on the bed of sickness, and was buried at Borre under a mound.
Child of HALFDAN of NORWAY is:
i. IVAR, HAFDANSSON, EARL OF THE UPLANDS
IVAR HAFDANSSON, EARL OF THE UPLANDERS was born 790, Norway.
Jarl is the Scandinavian spelling for Earl. Ivar was the Earl of the Uplanders of Norway, son of Halfdan 'The Old'. Ivar is presumed to have been at least 10 years of age when he married the daughter of Hogne, Earl of Throndheim.
Child of IVAR, EARL OF THE UPLANDERS, is:
i. EYSTEIN "THE NOISY" IVARSSON, b. 810, Maer, Nord Trondelag, Norway.
12. EYSTEINN GLUMRA "THE NOISY" IVARSSON, Earl of Moera was born 810, Maer, Nord Trondelag, Norway. He married ASEDA RAGNVALDSDOTTIR. She was born 812 in Jutland, Maer, Norway.
Child of EYSTEIN IVARSSON and ASEDA RAGNVALDSDOTTIR is:
i. RAGNVALD "THE MIGHTY" EYSTEINSSON I, b. 840, Nord Trondelag, Norway; d. Abt. 894, Orkney, Orkney Islands, Scotland.
13. RAGNVALD "THE MIGHTY" EYSTEINSSON I was born 840 in Nord Trondelag, Norway and died Abt. 894 in Orkney, Orkney Islands, Scotland. He married ROGNHILDA HROLFSDOTTER. She was born in Orkney, Orkney Islands, Scotland.
Notes for RAGNVALD "THE MIGHTY" EYSTEINSSON I:
Rognvald, Earl of Moera was a near relative of King Harold. His son married the daughter of King Harold of Norway who began extending his power in 860. This forced many sons and cousins of jarls (Earls) out of their lands and kingdoms into commerce or raiding.
Child of RAGNVALD EYSTEINSSON and ROGNHILDA HROLFSDOTTER is:
i. ROLLO ( ROLF) RAGNVALDSSON, b. 870, Norway; d. 931, France.
14. ROLLO ( ROLF) RAGNVALDSSON was born 870 in Norway, and died 931 in France. He married POPA De VALOIS. Duchess of Normany She was born 872.
Notes for ROLLO ( ROLF) RAGNVALDSSON:
Rollo (later Robert) "Duke of Normandy"
Viking leader in France, d. 932.
Although he is often referred to as the first Duke of Normandy, that title is an anachronism. Probably about 911, King Charles the Simple of France ceded a district around the city of Rouen to Rollo, which eventually evolved into the duchy of Normandy. He is said to have been baptized in 912, assuming the Christian name Robert. He was still living in 928, when he was holding Eudes, son of Heribert of Vermandois, as a captive and was probably dead by 932, when his son William was mentioned as leading the Normans.
Also known as Hrolf the Ganger or Rollon, 1st Duke of Normandy from 911 to 927, called also Rolf the Walker, because, being so tall, he preferred to go afoot rather than ride the little Norwegian horses. Also shown as Rollon, Row, or Robert Originally a Norse Viking, he was noted for strength and martial prowess. In the reign of Charles II the Bald, he sailed up the Seine River and took Rouen, which he kept as a base of operations. He gained a number of victories over the Franks, and extorted the cession of the province since called Normandy. By the famous treaty which Charles the Bald and Rollo signed the latter agreed to adopt Christianity. He was born in 846 and died in 932, and was buried in the Cathedral at Rouen.
Viking Chieftain, Rollo, was so enormous no horse could carry him. Charles the Simple gave Normandy to Rollo by the treaty of St. Clair-sur-Epte in 911.
The founding of Normandy bears a similarity to the way Danelaw came into existence in England some years earlier. The possible founding of Normandy may have been a direct result of the difficulty they found themselves in when invading England, now that it was becoming more organized in resisting them. By the early 900s, Viking raids were common place in northern Europe, including France. To allay these attacks, Charles the Simple, in 911 made a pact with the leader of the Vikings. This Dane was known as Rollo. As a condition of the peace, he accepted baptism. In return he was given an area off the north eastern cost of France which later became known as Normandy, which loosely translates as North man. He was renamed Robert and married princess Gisele, who was the daughter of Charles the Simple. When she died a few years later, he returned to a former mistress by the name of Poppa. Poppa's father was Count Beranger of Bayeux who he had killed in battle.
The Vikings started to make their mark around the Seine and Loire areas. In 911 Rollo took control of Caen from the inhabitants of Breton and history tells us that it was ceded to him by Charles the Simple. This was the beginning of the Duchy of Normandy and William Longsword added the Cotentin peninsular in 933. A Viking longhouse was found at Cobo and also in St Helier.
The recent history of the islands can therefore be traced back quite clearly to Norman times and Islanders proudly state that their ancestors were part of the forces of Norman the Conqueror which defeated England in 1066. In fact since around 933, when Rollo's son William Longsword added the islands to the dukedom of Normandy, the inhabitants of these islands have been answerable only to the Duke of Normandy and his successors, the British sovereign. When Guillaume Duke of Normandy conquered England in 1066, he became King William I as well as Duke of Normandy. However when King John lost the territory of Normandy to Philip II of France, the Channel Islands remained loyal to the English crown. In return for this loyalty, King John granted to the islands, certain rights and privileges in 1215, which enabled them to be virtually self-governing, subject only to Royal ascent and enactment’s through the Privy Council. In 1294 a large part of the Guernsey population were killed in French raids. In fact over the ensuing centuries, possession of the islands switched back and forth between the English and French six times. Large castles were built most of which still survive today.
As the grizzled and aging Norsemen in 911 AD returned from an unsuccessful siege of Chartes, France, their prospects for further pillaging looked dim. Fifty years of Norse raids into France had decimated everything worth looting. But their long and bitter struggle had gained them much land in western France. The large and powerful leader of this band of mostly Danes was the Norwegian, Gangerolv (Hrolf, Gongu-Hrolfr, Hrolf the Walker-so called because his feet dragged when on horseback- Rollon, and Rollo. I suspect that in France, he was usually known as Rollon or Robert and the Latin form of Rollo did not appear until later when the English wrote about him.
Suddenly King Charles III, the Simple, also weary of fighting and being urged by Pope John X to Christianize the Norse, offered to sign a treaty at the town of St. Clair on the Ept River. This began his association with this name and veneration of the Saint, however it was from his later descendants living at St. Clair-sur-Elle that the St. Clair/Sinclair took their name.
But Charles was not dealing with just a super crafty pirate that had risen from obscurity to regional fame. No, Rollo’s father was Rognvald, The Wise, jarl (Earl) of MŅre, Norway, the first jarl of Orkney, and a near relative of King Harold Fairhair. Rollo’s mother was Countess Ragnhilda, daughter of the sea King Rolf Nefia. Rollo's brother, Thorir, succeeded Rognvald to the jarldom of MŅre and married King Harold's daughter, Arbota . Harold bestowed the Shetlands and Orkneys on jarl Rognvald’s family. The jarl’s brother, Sigurd, the sea King Einar, and one-eyed, ruthless and middling poet added, Caithness to their holdings and was the second jarl of Orkney. The house of Rognvald was one of the oldest lines of rulers in Norway with Rollo's brothers, Hallard and Einar also becoming the 4th and 5th Earls of Orkney. Einar’s descendant, Isobel, married William Sinclair, 11th Baron of Rossyln, a descendant of Einar’s brother Gangerolv/Rollo. This connected the Norse lines of Einar and Rollo back to Rognvald again.
About 860, when Rollo was born on the island of Giske near Ālesund in Romsdahl of MŅre, Harold began his efforts to control all of Norway. In 872 he was crowned King of Norway at the Earl of MŅre’s court. Young Rollo did not like the loss of freedom and the King’s taxes. He angered King Harald by stealing his cattle and was banished upon pain of death. Other Norwegian nobility were dispossessed as Harold continued to consolidate his hold on the smaller kingdoms. Many of them went into commerce or to "Viking". Rollo, using the ship his father gave him, soon drew others discontents and retaliated with raids against his homeland. He then moved on to Scotland and France. He probably accompanied the Danish Viking chief, Siegfried in an ill-fated siege of Paris in 886 or 888. He may have also joined with Guthran, a Dane, in fighting King Alfred the Great in England. These Viking armadas were made up of several nationalities.
The Norman’s were camped on the right bank and the French on the left bank of the Epte River in preparation for the signing of the 911 treaty which would make Rollo the Count/Duke of Rouen and secure the lands he had already gained. (The title of Duke wasn’t used much until after 1006 AD. In return Rollo promised to defend the land against other Norsemen and be baptized.) Custom then required that Rollo demonstrate his loyalty and service by kissing King Charles’ foot. But, Rollo thought it beneath himself to kneel and kiss the King’s foot. Consequently, he told one of his men, Hastings, to do it instead. His man obeyed reluctantly but as he did so, he raised Charles’ foot so high that the King tipped over backwards. Instead he pledged his fidelity by giving a bowl of water, a clod of earth and a stick and pressing the King's hands between his, gave Charles his pledge of obedience.
In 912 AD, Rollo and his followers using more political wisdom than inner conviction, were baptized and his name was changed this time to Robert. Rollo quickly set down principals and regulations protecting each man’s person and possessions. He strengthened the towns’ defenses, gave the countryside peace and devoted himself to the interests of his fief, soon called Normandy after the Norsemen. From the beginning Norman society had an aristocratic and feudal character lacking in Denmark and the Danish settlements in England. In 1066 AD, Rollo’s great-great-great grandson, William the Conqueror, imposed this finely tuned feudal system upon the Saxons of England.
Back in 886 AD, Rollo’s group attacked Bayeaux, Brittany and killed their Count Berenger. He then took the Count’s daughter, Poppa, as his "Danish Wife". This common practice was accepted by laymen. The two contracting parties knew that if better social or political prospects appeared, such a marriage could be ended without a complex church divorce. Rollo possibly had about fourteen children but the four known to us today were probably Poppa’s, the aristocrat's, children: Gerlotte m. Wm. Earl of Pointiers; Adele b. 897 d. 962 m. Duke Guillaune III of Aquitaine; William 2nd Duke of Normandy b.c. 915 m. d/o Count Robert de Vermandon; and Robert m. daughter of Earl of Corbuell. As part of the 911 treaty, Charles gave Rollo his daughter, Giselle, but there were no children from this marriage. Since there is no official records of this marriage, it is possible that Giselle was the 'Natural Daughter' of the King. Now he was the son-in-law of the King of France.
Rollo’s great-granddaughter, Emma married two Kings of England, Aehelred the Unready and Knut who was also King of Norway and Denmark. Her son, Edward the Confessor, from the first marriage, was King of England from 1042-1066. Rollo’s descendants have ruled England almost continually from that time unto today. Most European rulers by the thirteenth century could trace their ancestry to Rollo also.
Rollo’s enemies probably considered him cruel and arrogant, but history also indicates Rollo’s intelligence, with exceptional skills in navigation, warfare, leadership, and administration. He deepend and narrowed the Seine at Rouen. His work lasted almost 1000 years. After WWII the US Army Corps of Engineers had few improvements to make. Among his people, he was for hundreds of years, the personification of justice and good government under law. He was responsible for deepening the Seine at Rouen. Some of this project is still working today. He abdicated to his son, William I in 927 then died in Bec Hallouin Monastary in 933 and buried at Notre Dame, Rouen, France.
Child of ROLLO RAGNVALDSSON and POPA DE VALOIS is:
i. WILLIAM I, DUKE OF NORMANDY, b. 900, Normandy, France; d. December 17, 943, Amiems, France.
WILLIAM I, DUKE OF NORMANDY was born 900 in Normandy, France, and died December 17, 943 in Amiems, France. He married twice.1st, Ledgarde, Duchess of Normandy. He married 2nd, Sprota de Bretagne in Normandy, France. She was born Abt. 911 in Bretagne, Brittany, France.
Notes for GUILLAUME I, WILLIAM I, DUKE OF NORMANDY:
Rollo and Poppa had a son name William Longsword who later became William I Duke of Normandy. William married a woman named Ledgarde and together had a son and heir who later inherited his father’s title.
Considerable amounts of time have been spent in discussing the attributes and failings of the Kings of England from the time of Alfred the Great. The final King of England will be William. The next few chapters will include his family history, how he became Duke of Normandy and the events that lead up to his meeting with Harold II.
William went to a small island in the river Somme near Amiens to meet Arnulph, Count of Flanders, to conclude a treaty with him. He was assassinated by his orders in 842. Named for the long sword given him at his coronation.
Child of WILLIAM I and SPROTA De BRETAGNE is:
i. RICHARD I, “The Fearless” DUKE OF NORMANDY, b. August 28, 933, Fecamp, France; d. November 20, 996, Fecamp, France.
16. RICHARD I, DUKE OF NORMANDY was born August 28, 933 in Fecamp, France, and died November 20, 996 in Fecamp, France. He married DUCHESS OF NORMANDY, GUNNOR OF CREPON. She was born Abt. 936 in Normandy, France, and died 1031.
3rd Duke of Normandy, Richard I or the fearless as he became known, married a French princess but maintained a mistress on the side. She was known as Gunnor. Gunnor bore all of Richard's children. Gunnor was from an important Danish family and eventually married him on the princess's death. This meeting with Gunnor is steeped in French folklore. When Richard was out hunting, he stayed on the property of one of his subjects. It was normal in that period for the husband to offer his wife for the lords comfort. His quick thinking wife introduced her sister Gunnor to Richard. They immediately fell in love and were soon meeting on a regular basis. From this liaison came all Richard's children. How many children there were is uncertain but at least four are known.
He married twice. He married Emma of France in 956. He was surnamed "The Fearless" and reigned for fifty-three years - beginning at age ten. He built a castle in Rouen, which stood on the site of the "halles" or markets. It was called Vielle Tour and was the seat of the Norman sovereigns. It was demolished in 1204. He established the first mint at Rouen. In his day the majority of citizens were worshippers of Odin. He married Esme, a Christian noblewoman related closely to the throne of France.
They had no children. After her death, he married his Danish wife Gunnor in the rites of the church. Their daughter Emma de Normandii married Aethelred, King of England in 1002. By this first marriage she became the mother of Edward the Confessor. By her second marriage she became the mother of King Hardicanute. His father was William Longsword, son of Rollo, grandson of Rognvald the Wolf.
Stories of the ancestors of this time come from the chartularies of Kenilworth and of Stone Priory in Staffordshire. They are the source of the Norse and Northumbiran stories. It was from the old Northumbrian families that the story of Robin Hood first came.
"I ken rymes of Robyn Hood and Randolf, Earl of Chester."
This is the oldest known mention of Robin Hood. The nobleman mentioned was a special friend of Fulke Fitz Warine.
Another instance, John de Fordun, who died in 1386 describes Robin Hood as a very religious sort of person, who frequented Harnisdale. Then Andrew Wyntoun, about 1420 says:
"Lytell Ihon and Robyne Hude Wathmen (1) ware commendyd gude; In Yngilwode and Barnysdale Thai oysed (2) all this tyme thare trawale (3). (1. Read sportsmen; 2.used, frequented; 3. Travel, work, labor)"
Robin Hood was no myth, but there was a succession of them. The first being one Dan Waryn of Northumberland. There was a Robin Hood of Redesdale in Northumberland. These first outlaws were local nobles hounded from their homes by the men of the Conqueror and forced to live in the forest until a place could be found for them in the feudal society as an ally or vassal of another noble.
Child of RICHARD I and DUCHESS NORMANDY is:
i. RICHARD II "THE GOOD" DUKE OF NORMANDY, b. Abt. 958, Normandy, France; d. August 23, 1027, Fecamp, France.
17. RICHARD II "THE GOOD" DUKE OF NORMANDY was born Abt. 958 in Normandy, France, and died August 23, 1027 in Fecamp, France. He married DUCHESS OF NORMANDY JUDITH de Bretagne. She was born Abt. 974 in Bretagne, France, and died 1017.
Richard II, the Good, 4th Duke of Normandy. d. 1026. Married (1st) 1008 JUDITH daughter of CONAN LE TORT Count of Rennes by 2nd wife ERMENGARDE daughter of GEOFFREY Count of Anjou. Married (2nd) PAPIA DU MAULIN.
RICHARD, The Good reigned from 996 to 1026 and kept an unbroken friendship between Normandy and France. He established a nobility, which became permanent.
Child of RICHARD NORMANDY and DUCHESS JUDITH is:
i. ROBERT I “de Magnificent” DUKE OF NORMANDY, b. Abt. 999, Normandy, France; d. July 02, 1035, Nicaea, Turkey.
ROBERT I "de Magnificent”DUKE OF NORMANDY was born Abt. 999 in Normandy, France, and died July 02, 1035 in Nicaea, Turkey. He may have married HERLEVA DE FALAISE. She was born Abt. 1003.
Robert died while returning from a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. He also contributed to the restoration of Henry King of France to his throne, and received from the gratitude of that monarch, the Vexin, as an additional to his patrimonial domains.
He associated with his mistress, Herleve of Falaise, and sired a daughter Adeliza and a son William. Robert may have murdered his elder brother, Richard III, on August 6th, 1028 in order to succeed to the Duchy of Normandy.
In the 8th year of his reign, curiosity or devotion induced him to undertake a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, where the fatigues of the journey and the heat of the climate so impaired his constitution he died on his way home. Some say he was poisoned at Nicaea in Bithynia in 1035.
Child of ROBERT OF NORMANDY and HERLEVA DE FALAISE is:
i. WILLIAM I "THE CONQUEROR" KING OF ENGLAND, b. 1028, Falaise, Normandy, France; d. September 10, 1087, Hermentrude, Near Rouen, Seine, France.
19. WILLIAM I "THE CONQUEROR" KING OF ENGLAND was born 1028 in Falaise, Normandy, France, and died September 10, 1087 in Hermentrude, Near Rouen, Seine, France. He married COUNTESS OF FLANDERS MATILDA Abt. 1050 in Angi Castle, Normandy, France. She was born Abt. 1031 in Flanders, France, and died November 02, 1083 in Caen, Calavdos, France.
William I (born 1027, ruled 1066-87), called William the Conqueror, was an illegitimate son of Robert I, duke of Normandy. His mother was a tanner' s daughter. William succeeded his father when he was only 7 years old. At 24 he had made himself the mightiest feudal lord in all France by various conquests, but his ambition was not satisfied. He laid plans to become king of England also.
William married Matilda, daughter of Baldwin V, count of Flanders, in 1053. She was descended from the old Anglo-Saxon line of kings. Among their children were four sons: Robert, future duke of Normandy; Richard, who died as a youth; William Rufus, who succeeded his father as king of England; and Henry, who succeeded William Rufus. One daughter, Adela, became the mother of England's King Stephen.
Edward the Confessor, king of England, was William's cousin. William used his connection with Flanders to put pressure on Edward to extort a promise that he would become heir to the English throne. It is probable that Edward made some kind of pledge to William as early as 1051. Edward died childless on Jan. 5, 1066. William then claimed the throne on the basis of this promise. The English, however, chose Harold, earl of Wessex, as their king.
William prepared a large expedition and set sail for England. On Oct. 14, 1066, he defeated and killed Harold at Hastings in one of the decisive battles of the world. Then he marched on London, and on Christmas day he was crowned king.
After subduing England's powerful earls, William seized their lands for his Norman nobles and ordered the nobles to build fortified stone castles to protect their lands. As payment for their fiefs, the nobles supplied the king with armed knights. French became the language of the king's court and gradually blended with the Anglo-Saxon tongue.
William won the loyalty of the mass of the people by wisely retaining the old Anglo-Saxon laws, courts, and customs with only a few changes. Thus the principle of self-government, which lies at the root of the political system of English-speaking peoples, was preserved and strengthened. At the same time, William taught the English the advantages of a central government strong enough to control feudal lords.
Toward the end of his reign, William ordered a great census to be taken of all the lands and people of England. This survey was called Domesday Book. Two of the original books may still be seen at the Public Records Office in London. "So very narrowly did he cause the survey to be made," complained the old Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, "that there was not a single rood of land, nor an ox, or a cow, or a pig passed by, and that was not set down in the accounts."
William was often on the continent dealing with his widespread holdings. He died there in 1087 from injuries received while warring with Philip I of France. William was a man of great stature and had a tremendous voice. Such was the good order he established that, according to a quaint historian of his time, "any man, who was himself aught, might travel over the kingdom with a bosom of gold unmolested, and no man durst kill another, however great the injury he might have received from him." He was succeeded in Normandy by his eldest son, Robert, and in England by his second son, William II, called William Rufus
William invaded England and defeated and killed his rival Harold at the Battle of Hastings and became King. The Norman conquest of England was completed by 1072 aided by the establishment of feudalism under which his followers were granted land in return for pledges of service and loyalty. As King William was noted for his efficient if harsh rule. His administration relied upon Norman and other foreign personnel especially Lanfranc, Archbishop of Canterbury. In 1085 he started the Domesday Book.
William, now known to us as The Conqueror, was known to his contemporaries as William the Bastard. His mother, Herleva, bore the only son of Robert, Duke of Normandy in the year 1028. After William's birth his mother was married to one of Robert's followers and had two more sons, Robert and Odo. Although William was illegitimate, the Duke, soon to leave on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, persuaded the barons of Normandy to recognize William's birthright. On his way home, Robert was killed and at the age of seven William became Duke of Normandy. Because of William's young age, his ascension meant unrule for approximately 10 years. Although plots to kill or capture him were aloft, William survived and in the mid 1040's started to rule for himself. Normandy was constantly at war during these years, whether it be rebel bands of Normans or William's neighbours, and William gained a reputation as a ruthless campaigner. It was at this time that William asked Count Baldwin of Flanders (one of William's few allies) for the hand of his daughter Matilda. The Count approved, but the Pope refused the marriage on the grounds that Matilda and William were too closely related. But William was not a man easily deterred. He went ahead with the marriage not only because of the important famous documents of Norman England, the Domesday Book. However, the Domesday Book was of little use to William. Before monetary benefits could be reaped, Normandy called. In yet another dispute with the King of France over Norman territory, William attempted a surprise attack on the town Mantes. While winning the town, William received a serious injury by Arnulf of Flanders and on September 9, 1087 he died.
William was brought to the Church of St., Stephen at Caen for burial, but unfortunately in his later years William had grown very fat. (King Philip of France said he looked like a pregnant woman.) While trying to stuff his body into the stone sarcophagus the corpse burst open and according to witnesses filled the church with a foul odor. It was an unceremonious end to the man who changed the destiny of England forever.
iii. Richard Duke Of Bernay, born Abt. 1054 in Normandy, France; died Abt. 1081 in New Forest, Hampshire, England.
iv. Cecilia Of Holy Trinity Abbess Of Caen, born Abt. 1055 in Normandy, France; died 30 July 1126 in Caen, Calvados, France.
v. Adelidis Princess of England, born Abt. 1056 in Normandy, France.
vi. Margaret Princess of England, born Abt. 1059 in Normandy, France.
vii. William II Rufus King of England, born Abt. 1060 in Normandy, France; died 01 August 1100 in New Forest, Hampshire, England.
Reigned 1087-1100. His harsh rule aroused baronial and ecclesiastical opposition, notably from Anslem, Archbishop of Canterbury. He made several attempts to recover Normandy from his elder brother Robert and was killed by an arrow while hunting. He may have been assassinated by order of his younger brother who became Henry I. Had red hair. He had very little time for religion and presided over a liberal court but treated his subjects brutally. He was reluctant to fill church vacancies and waited 4 years to appoint Anslem.
William was the third son born to William I and Matilda. Unlike Robert, the first-born, but treasonous son of the Conqueror, William was ever loyal to his father. When the King's second son, Richard, died in an accident, it seemed William would be the one to inherit the lands and titles of his father. But, Robert, although disloyal, was the first born and the recognized property rights of the first son were undeniable. Robert became Duke of Normandy; but on his deathbed, William I named his third son King of England and on September 26, 1087, William II was crowned at Westminster.
William II had his father's stout build, light eyes and a ruddy complexion (hence the nickname--William Rufus) and most embarrassing for a monarch, a stutter. However, a stutter was the least of his worries. During the reign of William I most of the lands and estates were taken from English aristocrats and bestowed on Norman barons--men who still owned Norman estates. With the ascension of William this new nobility found themselves in the difficult position of serving two masters: William in England, and William's brother, Robert Duke of Normandy. By the following year a Norman campaign to relieve William of England was under way, but Robert never landed in England and the revolt was easily crushed. William however was not as easily dissuaded. He wanted Normandy and with English silver he could have it. Cold, hard currency was a rare commodity in medieval Europe, but the British Isles, rich in natural silver ore, was the exception. Robert's position became more tenuous until finally, in 1096, he joined a crusade to the Holy Land and pawned Normandy to William for 10,000 marks.
Overall, William was an effective rule. He won back ancestral land lost by Robert; he moved further into Wales and Scotland; and he put down the occasional rebellion. William's failings were with the Church of Rome. The Archbishop Lefranc, appointed by William I, kept a semblance of piety and discretion over the court of William II, but with Lefranc's death, William saw only an opportunity to help himself to Church revenues. He distrusted the church and distrusted its representatives. Once approached by a monk who foresaw William's death in a dream, William retorted, "He is a monk and so, of course, he dreams for money."
But William's cynicism did not last for long, for in 1093 William thought he was dying and in a fit a religious idealism appointed a saint, Anselm, to the position of Archbishop of Canterbury. What proved to be problematic for William was that he did not die, and now he was stuck with Anselm, a religious radical. As a Norman abbot, Anselm recognized Urban II as the Pope, but in England, Urban II was not acknowledged. This, and other disagreements between William and Anselm, came to a head when William called a court in order to settle matters. Anselm appealed to Rome claiming that as a cleric he could not be tried in a secular court. With this William saw his way out. He told Urban II that he would indeed recognize Urban's authority as Pope, if he in turn would depose Anselm. Urban agreed and sent a papal legate to England; and Urban II was declared the canonical Pope. Urban, however, never deposed Anselm, and William was
further frustrated. Thus started William's campaign of harassment against Anselm and his roadblocks against church reform. Anselm eventually gave up and abandoned the Canterbury estates, and the revenues again went into William's pocket. However, the power of the church was growing. Gone were the days when the monarchs of England paid no notice to the bishop of Rome.
For the meantime though, William made out quite well. He was at the height of his influence and was planning a few conquests here and there, when on August 2, 1100, he was killed by an arrow while hunting in the New Forest. It may have been an accident, or it may have been murder, for William's brother, Henry, was also in the New Forest that August day and within three days he would be King.
Child of WILLIAM, KING of ENGLAND and COUNTESS MATILDA is:
i. HENRY I "BEAUCLERC" KING OF ENGLAND, b. Abt. 1068, Salby, Yorkshire, England; d. December 01, 1135, Angera, Maine-et-Loire, France.
20. HENRY I "BEAUCLERC" KING OF ENGLAND was born Abt. 1068 in Salby, Yorkshire, England, and died December 01, 1135 in Angera, Maine-et-Loire, France. He married EDITH MATILDA DUNKELD, PRINCESS OF SCOTLAND November 11, 1100, daughter of MALCOLM SCOTLAND and MARGARET ATHELING. She was born 1079 in Scotland, and died 1118.
Child of HENRY I, KING of ENGLAND and EDITH DUNKELD is:
i. MATILDA BEAUCLARE, EMPRESS OF GERMANY, b. August 05, 1102, London, Middlesex, England; d. September 10, 1167, Notre Dame, Rouen, Normandy, France.
21. MATILDA BEAUCLARE, EMPRESS OF GERMANY was born August 05, 1102 in London, Middlesex, England, and died September 10, 1167 in Notre Dame, Rouen, Normandy, France. She married (1) GEOFFREY V PLANTAGENET "THE FAIR" COUNT OF ANJOU April 03, 1127 in Le Mans Cathedral, Sarthe, France, son of FOULQUES PLANTAGENET and ERMENGRADE DU MAINE. He was born August 24, 1113 in Anjou, France, and died September 07, 1151 in Chateau Eure-et-Lorie, France. She married (2) HENRY I, KING OF ENGLAND April 03, 1127 in Le Mans Cathedral, France, child of FOULQUES PLANTAGENET and ERMENGRADE DU MAINE. was born 1068 in Selby, Yorkshire, England, and died September 07, 1151 in Chateau Eure-et-Lorie, France.
Matilda was the only daughter of King Henry I and was adopted as the future Queen in 1127 by the Barons on the death of the heir William. When Henry died in 1135 she was denied the throne by Stephen of Blois. In 1139 she invaded England, establishing a stronghold in the west country, and captured Stephen in 1141.
Matilda, the Empress, was the daughter of Henry I. of England, and was married, in 1110, to the Emperor Henry V. On his death, in 1127, she married Geoffrey Plantagenet, Earl of Anjou, by whom she had a son, afterwards Henry II., King of England. She was nominated in 1135 successor to the English throne by her father; but in her absence Stephen usurped the title. Arriving in England with a large army in 1139, she defeated Stephen, and was acknowledged queen in a synod held in 1141. Stephen afterwards defeated the Empress, and she was obliged to leave the kingdom. Matilda died in 1165, aged 67.
Matilda is the Latin form of Maud, and the name of the only surviving legitimate child of King Henry I. She was born in 1101, generally it is said at Winchester, but recent research indicates that she was actually born at the Royal Palace in Sutton Courtenay (Berkshire).
In something of a political coup for her father, Matilda was betrothed to the German Emperor, Henry V, when she was only eight. They were married on 7th January 1114. She was twelve and he was thirty-two. Unfortunately there were no children and on the Emperor's death in 1125, Matilda was recalled to her father's court.
Matilda's only legitimate brother had been killed in the disastrous Wreck of the White Ship in late 1120 and she was now her father's only hope for the continuation of his dynasty. The barons swore allegiance to the young Princess and promised to make her queen after her father's death. She herself needed heirs though and in April 1127, Matilda found herself obliged to marry Prince Geoffrey of Anjou and Maine (the future Geoffrey V, Count of those Regions). He was thirteen, she twenty-three. It is thought that the two never got on. However, despite this unhappy situation they had had three sons in four years.
Being absent in Anjou at the time of her father's death on 1st December 1135, possibly due to pregnancy, Matilda was not in much of a position to take up the throne which had been promised her and she quickly lost out to her fast-moving cousin, Stephen. With her husband, she attempted to take Normandy. With encouragement from supporters in England though, it was not long before Matilda invaded her rightful English domain and so began a long-standing Civil War from the power base of her half-brother, Robert of Gloucester, in the West Country.
After three years of armed struggle, she at last gained the upper hand at the Battle of Lincoln, in February 1141, where King Stephen was captured. However, despite being declared Queen or "Lady of the English" at Winchester and winning over Stephen's brother, Henry of Blois, the powerful Bishop of Winchester, Matilda alienated the citizens of London with her arrogant manner. She failed to secure her coronation and the Londoners joined a renewed push from Stephen's Queen and laid siege to the Empress in Winchester. She managed to escape to the West, but while commanding her rearguard, her brother was captured by the enemy.
Matilda was obliged to swap Stephen for Robert on 1st November 1141. Thus the King soon reimposed his Royal authority. In 1148, after the death of her half-brother, Matilda finally returned to Normandy, leaving her son, who, in 1154, would become Henry II, to fight on in England. She died at Rouen on 10th September 1169 and was buried in Fontevrault Abbey, though some of her entrails may possibly have been later interred in her father's foundation at Reading Abbey.
He was King of England (1100-1135) the youngest son of William I. He was called Henry Beauclerc because he could write. He quarreled with his elder brothers, William II of England and Robert II, duke of Normandy, and attempted with little success to establish a territorial base for himself on the Continent. When William II was killed, Henry seized the treasury and had himself elected and crowned king while Robert was away on crusade. Henry issued a charter promising to right injustices inflicted by William and to refrain from unjust demands on the church and the barons. He also recalled Anselm from exile. His marriage (1100) to Edith (thereafter known as Matilda), daughter of Malcolm III of Scotland and niece of Edgar Atheling, gained him some popularity with his English (as opposed to Norman) subjects. Robert invaded England in 1101, but the brothers reached an agreement by which Robert renounced his claim to the English throne in return for the promise of a pension and the surrender of Henry's possessions in Normandy. In the succeeding years Henry defeated and banished Robert's leading supporters in England. He then invaded (1105) Normandy, defeated (1106) Robert at Tinchebrai, and became duke of Normandy. In the meantime Henry had become involved in a quarrel with Anselm over the lay investiture of bishops and abbots. In a compromise settlement (1107) the king gave up investiture but retained the right to receive homage from the prelates. Henry's reign continued to be troubled by uprisings in Normandy centering about Robert's son and encouraged by Louis VI of France, who was almost constantly at war with Henry. Henry's only legitimate son, William Atheling, was drowned (1120), and Henry I's second marriage was childless. The latter years of his reign were marked therefore by his attempts to secure the succession for his daughter Matilda. Henry's reign in England was one of order and progress. Royal justice was strengthened and expanded; the Norman legal system gradually fused with the old Anglo-Saxon. The first of the extant pipe rolls and the first appearance of the court of Exchequer date from this reign.
Child of MATILDA BEAUCLARE and HENRY I is:
ii. HENRY II, "CURTMANTLE", KING OF ENGLAND, b. March 05, 1132/33, Le Mans, France; d. July 06, 1199, Chinon Castle, France.
22. HENRY II, "CURTMANTLE", KING OF ENGLAND was born March 05, 1132/33 in Le Mans, France, and died July 06, 1199 in Chinon Castle, France. He married ELEANOR DE POINTIERS, PRINCESS OF AQUITAINE May 18, 1152 in Bordeau Cathedral, Bordeau, France, daughter of WILLIAM DE POINTIERS and ELEANOR CHASTELLARAULT. She was born 1122 in Chateau de Belin, Bordeaux, France, and died March 03, 1203/04 in Fontevraud Abbey , Maine-et-Loire, France.
From the book of the MEDIEVAL KNIGHT by Stephen Turnbull.
Eeanor of Aquitaine, one of the richest women in Europe was divorced from her husband, Louis VII, King of France, and married a certain Henry Plantagent. aka: Henry II Curtmantle Fitz Empress, King of England; Duke of Normandy. Buried at Fontevraud Abbey, France. Reigned 1154-1189. Ruled empire that stretched from the Somme to the Pyrenees, from the Scottish border almost to the Mediterranean. In spite of frequent hostilities with the French King, his own family, rebellious Barons (culminating
From the point of view of the King of France there could have been no worse
alliance. This Henry Plantagenet had recently had recenty inherited Maine, Touraine and Anjou from his father, and was already both Duke of Normandy and Suzerain of Brittany. In 1154, on the death of King Stephen, Henry became King Henry II of England. The amalgamation of their teritories into what was to become the Angevin empire, the glory of Plantegenets, would provoke the virtue of inter-nationalism and the vice of conflict, between England and France for the next three centuries.
In the great revolt of 1173-74), and his quarrel with Thomas Becket, Henry maintained control over his possessions until shortly before his death. His main aim was to curtail the barons and the church, both of whom had become too powerful under King Stephen. He succeeded in defeating the barons, pulling down their castles. reforming the system of taxation and introducing the rudiments of trial by jury. But he never defeated the Church and he had to take blame for the murder of Thomas Beckett at Canterbury. He was a strong, energetic king, full of good sense, yet he died unhappily in 1189, knowing his subjects were in rebellion and even his sons were plotting against him. He was the first English King after the conquest to be fully literate, having been well tutored as a young man and showed a mix of kingliness and culture; he liked to have learned men about him, was passionately curious about history and literature as well as war and hunting. His idea of history was a French epic on his forefathers and their great deeds--the ROMAN DE ROU, which he commissioned. He emerges a brilliant figure, fascinating, dangerous and yet somehow intensely human. Fervent worship of Jesus Christ during this time led to 2 new Church orders for monks: Carthusian and Cistercian, and the pronouncement of the Virgin Mary as a Saint.
He was said to be short in height, red hair, freckles, and grey eyes. Like his grandfather he had many mistresses including Princess Alice of France who was later betrothed to his son, Richard I, the Lionheart, who was his successor.
Henry II (1133-89), King of England (1154-89), first monarch of the house of Anjou, or Plantagenet, an important administrative reformer, who was one of the most powerful European rulers of his time.
Born March 5, 1133, at Le Mans, France, Henry became duke of Normandy in 1151 The following year, on the death of his father, he inherited the Angevin territories in France. By his marriage in 1152 to Eleanor of Aquitain e, Henry added vast territories in southwestern France to his possessions. Henry claimed the English kingship through his mother, Matilda. She had been designated the heiress of Henry I but had been deprived of the succession by her cousin, Stephen of Blois, who made himself King. In 1153 Henry defeated Stephen's armies in England and compelled the king to choose him as his successor; on Stephen's death, the following year, Henry became King.
During the first few years of his reign Henry quelled the disorders that had developed during Stephen's reign, regained the northern counties of England, which had previously been ceded to Scotland, and conquered North Wales In 1171-72 he began the Norman conquest of Ireland and in 1174 forced William the Lion, King of the Scots, to recognize him as overlord.
In 1164 Henry became involved in a quarrel with Thomas a Becket, whom he had appointed archbishop of Canterbury. By the Constitutions of Clarendon, the King decreed that priests accused of crimes should be tried in royal courts; Becket claimed that such cases should be handled by ecclesiastical courts, and the controversy that followed ended in 1170 with Becket's murder by f our of Henry's knights. Widespread indignation over the murder forced the King to rescind his decree and recognize Becket as a martyr.
Although he failed to subject the church to his courts, Henry's judicial reforms were of lasting significance. In England he established a centralized system of justice accessible to all freemen and administered by judges who traveled around the country at regular intervals. He also began the process of replacing the old trial by ordeal with modern court procedures. From the beginning of his reign, Henry was involved in conflict with Louis VII, king of France, and later with Louis's successor, Philip II, over the French provinces that Henry claimed. A succession of rebellions again st Henry, headed by his sons and furthered by Philip II and by Eleanor of Aquitaine, began in 1173 and continued until his death at Chinon, France, on July 6, 1189. Henry was succeeded by his son Richard I, called Richard the Lion-Hearted.
Burial: 8 Jul 1189 Fontevrault Abbe, Mel, France
Henry was born in 1133 and was married to Eleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine immediately after her divorce from Louis VII, King of France. They had nine children: William, Henry, Matilda, Richard, Geoffrey, Philip, Eleanor, Joan and John.
Henry was the first of fourteen hereditary kings, who were later refered to in the history oracles as Plantagenets. Henry was the son of the Count of Anjou, whose family emblem was the 'plantegenet', a yellow flowering broom.
It was with the land bequeathed by the Count to Henry and his auspicious marriage to Eleanor, which gained him a vast amount of lands in France. These lands exceeded the lands owned in France by the King of France, himself. In those times, the King of France ruled from Paris and its surrounding areas.
Henry had lands reaching for 1000 miles, and it was this vast domain, which was called the Angevin Empire. Henry was the first king to demonstrate that he was truly a sovereign, and he ended all the anarchy and demonstration of strengths throughout his lands. He devoted himself to the internal security of his land and promoted domestic and foreign trade. Productivity doubled during his reign. He revolutionized the law system, and even sat over cases himself. He was a notable lawyer, and he built up the system of English Common Law, and began to develop the traditional jury system. He was a gifted administrator. Henry's notable failure was his attempt to curb the power and strength of the Church, particularly in the case of Thomas Beckett, who had been his wild pal until he was made Archbishop of Canterbury. His death did little for Henry's popularity. He was unfortunate in love, relentlessly and romantically pursuing the hand of his wife, Eleanor, who became a selfish spoilt lady, and who turned her sons against their own father. A rebellion by the eldest son, Henry was crushed, and Eleanor was placed under house arrest for fifteen years. The other brothers placed continual pressure on their father, in alliances with the King of France. Henry died a lonely and grief stricken man deserted by all of those he had loved and honoured.
Other names: Countess of Saintonge, Angoumois, Limousin, Auvergne, Bordeaux and Agen. Buried at Fontevraud Abbey, France. Queen Consort of France, 1137-52; Queen Consort of England, 1154-1204. Inherited the duchy of Aquitaine from her father in 1137, the same year she married to Louis VII of France. She accompanied her husband on the Second Crusade to the Holy Land, where it was rumored that she committed adultery. The scandal, and the fact that she had not given the King a male heir, resulted in an annulment of their marriage in 1152 under the pretext of blood kinship between her and the King. Later that year she married and gave her possessions to Henry Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, who in 1154 became Henry ll, King of England. In 1170, the Queen induced her husband to invest their son Richard, the Lion-Hearted, with her personal dominions of Gascony, Aquitaine, Poitou. When Richard and his brothers rebelled against their father in 1173, Eleanor, already alienated from the King because of his unfaithfulness, supported her sons. Consequently, she was placed in confinement until 1185. After her release, she secured the succession of her son, Richard, who had become heir apparent at the death of his older brother in 1183. From the death of King Henry ll, in 1189, until Richard's return from the Third Crusade in 1194, Eleanor ruled as regent. During this time she foiled the attempt of her son John, in 1193, to conspire with France against the new King. After the return of Richard, she arranged a reconciliation between the 2 brothers. Eleanor continued to be prominent in public affairs until she retired to the abbey in Fontevrault, France, where she died.
Eleanor of Aquitaine was born around 1122. Her grandfather, William IX, was the wealthy and powerful duke of Aquitaine. He was also a musician and poet, acknowledged as history's first troubadour.
William IX didn't just sing about love. By the time he was twenty he had married and divorced his first wife, Ermengarde. His second wife was Philippa (or Maud) of Toulouse, the widowed queen of Aragon. They had two sons, William and Raymond, and five daughters. When the Troubadour tired of Philippa, she moved to the same nunnery where Ermengard lived. After Philippa's death, Ermengarde tried to force William to take her back, but the duke had other ideas. He had abducted a married woman called Dangereuse ("dangerous" in French), and she was now his mistress.
In time the Troubadour decided that his elder son, William, should marry Dangereuse's daughter Aenor. (Dangereuse's husband was Aenor's father.) The younger William didn't want to marry Aenor, but he had no choice. The marriage took place in 1121, and a year or so later Eleanor of Aquitaine was born. She was followed by a daughter, Aelith (or Petronella) and a son, William Aigret.
When Eleanor was about five years old, William the Troubadour died and her father became Duke William X. A few years later, Eleanor's mother and brother died. Now Eleanor was heir to the vast realm of Aquitaine.
Like his father, William X was a patron of the troubadours and storytellers, and growing up in his court Eleanor developed a lifelong love of music and literature. Proud of his lively, intelligent daughter, William gave her an excellent education. She travelled through Aquitaine with him, preparing for her future role of duchess. Father and daughter were close, and it must have been a harsh blow for Eleanor when William, while making a religious pilgrimage, died suddenly of food poisoning.
Eleanor was just fifteen, and her life was about to change forever. On his deathbed William had asked his men to commend Eleanor to the care of Louis the Fat, king of France. Louis was no fool. He knew just what to do with his young, very beautiful, extremely wealthy ward - marry her off to his own son and heir. And so on August 1, 1137, Eleanor of Aquitaine married the future King Louis VII.
Both Eleanor and her husband were in their teens, but they had little else in common. Eleanor was high-spirited and strong-willed; Louis was a quiet, religious young man, regarded by some as a saint. No one ever mistook Eleanor of Aquitaine for a saint.
A few days after the wedding, Eleanor's father-in-law died and her husband became King Louis VII. Eleanor, who was not one to stay at home making tapestries, threw herself enthusiastically into the role of queen. To the dismay of many observers, the new king respected his wife's intelligence and consulted her frequently on matters of state. Queen Eleanor frequently visited Aquitaine, where she was well-regarded by her father's former vassals.
Eleanor's sister, Petronella, was also keeping busy. With Eleanor's encouragement, a nobleman divorced his wife to marry Petronella, which didn't make the family of Wife Number One very happy. War broke out, and Louis led his troops against a town called Vitry, setting it on fire. The townspeople sought refuge in a church, which burned down. More than one thousand people perished. Louis was wracked by guilt.
During the first years of her marriage Eleanor had just one child, who was stillborn. An influential miracle-working abbot, Bernard of Clairvaux, told her that she was childless because God disapproved of her wicked ways. Either Eleanor temporarily mended her ways or God relented, because in 1145 she gave birth to her first child, a daughter named Marie. But Eleanor wasn't ready to settle down and be a typical medieval mommy.
In 1144 the city of Edessa (located in modern-day Turkey), which had been in Christian hands for almost fifty years, was captured by Muslims. Most of its citizens were massacred or sold into slavery. Inspired by this event and the preaching of St. Bernard of Clairvaux, Louis VII and German emperor Conrad III organized their own separate military expeditions to the Middle East. The French and Germans had little interest in cooperating with each other; still, their dual effort is known as The Second Crusade.
Eleanor had no intention of sitting quietly at home while her husband went off on his adventure. The king's advisors may have been opposed to taking Eleanor and her company of 300 women along on the Crusade, but Eleanor was also offering the services of a thousand men from Aquitaine, and the king accepted. When they reached Antioch they were greeted by Eleanor's uncle, Raymond of Poitiers, who had become ruler of the city by marrying its young princess. Raymond entertained the crusaders in grand style, paying special attention to his flirtatious niece.
Although Raymond had a reputation for being a faithful husband, Eleanor's reputation was less spotless, and gossip about their relationship soon began to fly. The rumors followed Eleanor for the rest of her life. Many years later an English chronicler wrote sneeringly, "How Eleanor, queen of France, behaved when she was across the sea in Palestine... all these things are well enough known."
Whether or not Eleanor had an affair with her uncle, she was certainly influenced by him. When Raymond pleaded for Louis's help in defending Antioch, Eleanor took his side. When Louis refused to assist Raymond, Eleanor declared that she wanted a divorce. Louis, who adored his wife, was angry and hurt. He left Antioch and forced Eleanor to go with him. She never saw Raymond again. In 1149 he was killed in a battle against the Muslims. His severed head was sent to the caliph in Baghdad.
The Second Crusade was a failure, partly because of the quarreling among its leaders. Eventually Louis abandoned the cause and returned to France. Eleanor went with him -- on a separate ship. On their way home they stopped in Rome, where the pope persuaded them to go to bed together. The result of this papal intercession was a second daughter, Alix, born in 1150.
But the marriage of Eleanor of Aquitaine and Louis VII never truly recovered from Eleanor's scandalous behavior in Antioch, and in 1152 Louis granted Eleanor the divorce she desired. Eleanor was not destined to remain single for long.
In 1152, less than two months after her divorce from King Louis VII of France, Eleanor married Henry Plantagenet, the grandson of England's King Henry I. He was eighteen, eleven years younger than Eleanor. Their marriage scandalized observers. Eleanor, it was rumored, had previously had an affair with Henry's father.
In the words of a contemporary writer, Gerald of Wales, "Count Geoffrey of Anjou when he was seneschal of France took advantage of Queen Eleanor; for which reason he often warned his son Henry, telling him above all not to touch her, they say, both because she was his lord's wife, and because he had known her himself." But, ignoring his father's advice, Henry "presumed to sleep adulterously with the said queen of France, taking her from his own lord and marrying her himself. How could anything fortunate, I ask, emerge from these copulations?"
The first thing to emerge -- just five months after Eleanor and Henry's hasty marriage -- was a son, William. The child died a few years later. By then Henry had claimed the English throne. Eleanor, formerly queen of France, was now the queen of England.
Eleanor and Henry had seven surviving children: Henry, Matilda, Richard, Geoffrey, Eleanor, Joan, and John. As the children grew up, Eleanor and her husband grew apart. At first Henry conducted secret love affairs. Then he began a public relationship with a knight's daughter, Rosamond Clifford, "the Fair Rosamond." Legend has it that the jealous Queen Eleanor confronted Rosamond with a dagger in one hand and a cup of poison in the other and forced her to choose which way she would die. (Rosamond did die in 1177, but probably of natural causes.)
King Henry later became involved with his son Richard's fiancee, a French princess who also happened to be the daughter of Eleanor's first husband, Louis VII. Not surprisingly, Richard never married the girl.
In 1168 Eleanor returned to France to rule her restless subjects. Her court quickly became a center of culture. She was reunited with her eldest daughter from her first marriage, Marie, who shared her interests. But Eleanor wasn't content to spend the rest of her life patronizing troubadours and presiding over courts of love. She wanted more power than Henry was willing to give her, and she began plotting against him. Henry summoned her back to England, where she continued to scheme.
In 1173, Eleanor's three eldest sons - Henry, Richard, and Geoffrey - rebelled against their father, Henry II, with Eleanor's support. They were forced to flee to France. Eleanor tried to follow, disguised as a man, but she was captured by Henry's forces.
King Henry kept Eleanor more or less imprisoned for sixteen long years. His sons continued to war against him; in the end even his favorite son, John, turned against him. Finally, in 1189, Henry II died. Eleanor and Henry's eldest son, Henry, was already dead, so Eleanor's favorite, Richard the Lionheart, became king. Richard soon went away on a crusade, leaving his mother as regent. "He issued instructions to the princes of the realm, almost in the style of a general edict, that the queen's word should be law in all matters," wrote a contemporary chronicler, Ralph of Diceto.
She proved to be a shrewd ruler. When Richard was taken hostage, Eleanor helped to raise his ransom money. She also stood up to Richard's brother John, who plotted to seize the throne. She even managed to get Richard and John to reconcile after Richard's return to England.
Eventually Richard died and John became king. Like Richard, King John respected his mother and heeded her advice. She, in return, supported him against his enemies. Eleanor was now quite elderly by the standards of her time, but she continued to lead an active life, travelling through Europe and arranging marriages for her grandchildren. In 1202 the ailing Eleanor was trapped in a castle by the army of the French king, with whom John was at war, but John freed her.
Eleanor of Aquitaine died in 1204 at the abbey of Fontevrault, which she had long patronized. She is buried there, as are Henry II and Richard the Lionheart.
According to Ralph of Diceto, Eleanor's life "revealed the truth of a prophecy, which had puzzled all by its obscurity: 'The eagle of the broken bond shall rejoice in the third nestling.' They called the queen the eagle because she stretched out her wings, as it were, over two kingdoms - France and England. She had been separated from her French relatives through divorce, while the English had separated her from her marriage bed by confining her to prison . . . Richard, her third son - and thus the third nestling - was the one who would raise his mother's name to great glory."
Note: Here is where the history of King Henry II gets a little muddled!
He had a illegitimate son by his mistress, Rosamund (Joan) Clifford. Read the story in the history of the Henry II, Radcliff, Roger Dalton connection in another section of my book
23. WILLIAM "LONGESPREE" 3RD EARL OF SALISBURY was born Abt. 1160 in Amesbury, Wiltshire, England, and died March 07, 1224/25 in Mansourah, Nile. He married ELLA DEVEREAUX, COUNTESS OF SALISBURY. She was born Abt. 1191 in Amesbury, Wiltshire, England, and died August 24, 1261 in Lacock Abbey, Lacock, Wiltshire, England.
Notes for WILLIAM "LONGESPREE" 3RD EARL OF SALISBURY:
Longsword also spelled LONGESPÉE, an illegitimate son of Henry II of England, and a prominent baron, soldier, and administrator under John and Henry III. He acquired his lands and title from Richard I, who in 1196 gave him the hand of the heiress Ela, or Isabel, daughter of William, earl of Salisbury. He held numerous official positions in England under John. He was sent on missions to France (1202) and to Germany (1209). In 1213-14 he organized John's Flemish allies, taking part in the destruction (1213) of the French fleet at Damme, then the port of Bruges, and leading the right wing of the allied army at Bouvines (July 27, 1214), where he was captured. He was exchanged and was back in England by May 1215, when he was employed by John in inspecting the defenses of royal castles and fighting the rebels in the southwest.
Child of WILLIAM SALISBURY and ELLA DEVEREAUX is:
i. STEPHAN "LONGESPREE", b. Abt. 1216, Salisbury, Wiltshire, England; d. 1260, Sutton, Northantshire, England.
24. STEPHAN “LONGESPREE” was born Abt. 1216 in Salisbury, Wiltshire, England, and died 1260 in Sutton, Northantshire, England. He married EMALINE DE RIDDLESFORD, COUNTESS OF ULSTER. She was born Abt. 1223 in Salisbury, Wiltshire, England, and died 1276.
Child of STEPHAN LONGESPREE" and EMALINE DE RIDDLESFORD is:
i. ELA “LONGESPREE", b. Abt. 1246, Salisbury, Wiltshire, England; d. July 19, 1285.
ELA “LONGESPREE’ was born Abt. 1246 in Salisbury, Wiltshire, England, and died July 19, 1285. She married SIR ROGER LA ZOUCHE, LORD OF ASHBY 1267. He was born Abt. 1242 in Ashby, Leicestershire, England, and died Abt. 1285 in Ashby, Leicestershire, England.
Children of “ELA LONGESPREE" and SIR LA ZOUCHE are:
i. SIR ALAN LA ZOUCHE, b. October 09, 1267, North Molton, Devonshire, England; d. March 25, 1314, Brackey, Northamptonshire, England; m. ELEANOR DE SEAGRAVE; b. Abt. 1270, Seagrave, Leicestershire, England.
ii. MAUD LA ZOUCHE, b. Abt. 1284, Winchester, Hampshire, England; d. March 16, 1371/72, Brackley, Northamptonshire, England.
MAUD A ZOUCHE was born about 1284 in Winchester, Hampshire, England, and died March 16, 1371/72 in Brackley, Northamptonshire, England. She married SIR ROBERT DE HOLAND 1308 in Winchester, Hampshire, England. He was born 1283 in Upholland, Lancashire, England, and died October 07, 1328 in Beheaded, Borham Wood, Essex, England.
A story about Sir Robert de Holand:
"The rebellion was defeated at the Battle of Boroughbridge in Yorkshire in l322 and Sir Robert de Dalton fought with the Earl. Sir Robert de Holland, however, arrived too late with his reinforcements and then, seeing the Earl's cause was lost, wasted no time in pillaging the belongings of the Earl's supporters, taking goods to the value of £1,000. He made his peace with the King and advanced in royal favor. In 1328, however, the followers of the Earl had their revenge and he was ambushed and killed. His head was sent to the new Earl of Lancaster as a symbol of revenge"
Sir John Dalton with the aid of Baron Robert de Holland and four other Knights, abducted a married women from her home, killing her Uncle, a Priest and various servants, terrified some of the Royal children who were staying there and stole valuables worth 1.000 pounds. Sir John married the lady the same day and fled northwards to take refuge with the Holland's at Up-Holland. Afterwards he got a ship to take him and the lady overseas. Sir Robert, however, was not so fortunate. On May 28th, 1348 he was arrested and sent to the Tower of London and his lands were seized-. Once again the Holland connection may have helped. Sir Robert was pardoned for felonies and trespasses at the Manor of Beaumes, granted because of good service to the King for a long time, and it was proved that he was guiltless of the principal perpetration of the felonies. Sir Robert's lands were again restored to him. His wife's name is also given in the document of pardon; the only reference to her existence. She was Mary Latham, daughter of Sir Thomas Latham, a Lancashire neighbor. Sir John also emerged from the whole business more or less unscathed. In 1350 he was pardoned, and only one month later even more surprisingly was granted an annuity of £50 a year, so "that he may the better maintain himself in the King's service". The service was in the French Wars and Sir John is mentioned in connection with various incidents in the Hundred Years War.
Children of MAUD LA ZOUCHE nd SIR DE HOLAND are:
i. JOANE HOLAND, b. Ordsall, Lancashire Co. England; d. 1357.
ii. THOMAS DE HOLAND, b. Abt. 1314, Upholland, Lancashire Co. England; d. December 26, 1360, Normandy, France; m. PRINCESS OF WALES, JOAN OF KENT, 1346; b. September 29, 1328, Woodstock, Oxford. England; d. August 08, 1385, Wallingford Castle, Berkshire, England.
27. JOANE DE HOLAND was born in Ordsall, Lancashire Co. England, and died 1357. She married (1) SIR JOHN RADCLIFF, son of RICHARD RADCYLFFE and MISS LE BOTELER. He was born Abt. 1280. She married (2) SIR HUGH DE DUTTON. He was born 1276, and died 1326.
History of the Radclyffe Family:
John de Radclyffe, the actual founder of the line of Radclyffes of Ordsall, was the youngest son of Richard the Seneschal. His family's attachment to the cause of insurgent barons under the Earl of Lancaster, led John eventually into the service of the Queen's party, where he was rewarded with the favour of Queen Isabella and the warm friendship of the young Prince Edward, to whose personal service he was attached. In this capacity he was accompanied the Queen and the Prince during their sojourn on the Continent, where they sought the protection of Count William of Hainault, to whose daughter, Phillipa, the boy Prince was contracted by marriage. In September 1325 Isabella landed with her son at Orwell in Suffolk, supported by a force of two thousand men, which the Count of Hainault had placed at her disposal. She was joined by the great nobles who hated the Despensers, and Edward the Second fled with his favourites to the Welsh Marches. Here he was captured by his cousin, Henry, Earl of Lancaster, and taken prisoner to Kenilworth. The elder Despenser was executed at Bristol, and the younger at Hereford. Thomas of Lancaster was avenged. The King was deposed and Prince Edward proclaimed in his stead. A few months later in the midnight secrecy of Berkeley Castle the supplanted monarch came to his untimely end
The following spring Sir John Radclyffe was despatched to Hainault,, to conduct the Lady Philippa to England for her marriage to King Edward the Third, and to act as King's Proxy in the preliminaries concerning the marriage. As soon as Edward was firmly established on the throne, having proved his quality by his courage against the Scots in his first expedition of a military nature, the Queen-mother's star began to set. A new confederacy against her influence, and that of Roger Mortimer, her paramour, was organised by Henry, Earl of Lancaster. It proved abortive, Lancaster suffered a heavy fine, and the Earl of Kent was executed on a flimsy charge of treason. The young King was now decided to assert his own authority, and Mortimer was brought to the scaffold on 29th November 1330. Queen Isabella was banished for the remainder of her life to the seclusion of Castle Rising. During the next five years Sir John Radclyffe was engaged with the King against the Scots, and in 1337 was sent to Flanders to open negotiations for a treaty between the English King and the Flemish trading cities, which were anxious to secure the support of the powerful King of England against their oppressor, the King of France. Edward, on his side, was desirous of establishing a commercial alliance with the rich and prosperous burghers of the Low Countries, as a means of improving the economic state of his own impoverished people. For several years John Radclyffe remained in Flanders, rendering valiant service in counsel and in arms to Jacob van Artevelde and his associates in Ghent, Bruges, and Ypres. So much so, that when he was asked to name his reward he immediately requested that a number of the Flemish craftsmen should be permitted to return to England, there to teach their arts of manufacture to his own people. The request was readily granted, and he thereupon conducted these men and their families to England, settling them in Lancashire, of which county he had been appointed a Knight of the Shire in 1340
In 1346 King Edward began his great attempt to establish his claim to the Crown of France, and supported by a great concourse of English archers and men-at-arms, commanded by trusty barons and knights, he landed on the coast of Normandy. On Saturday, the 26th of August, was fought the memorable Battle of Crecy, when the English forces routed the assembled might of France. Five days later Edward began his 12 months' siege of the fortress of Calais, which finally capitulated on 4th August 1347. During this campaign Sir John Radclyffe was in constant attendance on the King, with a personal entourage of two knights, twelve esquires, and fourteen archers, and so nobly did he distinguish himself throughout the engagements, that the King granted him the right to use what has been described as the proudest family motto in all the nobility of England, the superscription 'Caen, Crecy, Calais,' which has been borne by his lineal descendents from that time to the present day
After the surrender of Calais Philip of France agreed to a temporary truce with England, and Sir John Radclyffe now returned to establish his possession of Ordsall manor, against Sir John Blount and the De Leghs, who had assumed the estate after the death of Sir Robert, his cousin. In the intervals of the lengthy litigation that challenged his occupation until 1359, when his rights in Ordsall lands were finally conceded, he busied himself with public duties, particularly in fostering the new industries his proteges from Flanders had introduced into the district. A century before, the town of Salford had been made a free borough, but its commercial development had been slow. Sir John set to work to enrich the chartered liberties of the town with the life blood derived from the new manufactures. He built houses for the Flemings in the town, made the free burghers, awoke a new spirit of commercial enterprise amongst the yeomen of the neighbourhood, and succeeded in gaining the interest of Queen Philippa in his experiment. From a quiet country village the ancient town grew under Sir John's direction into a thriving centre of commercial intercourse, and to him belongs the credit of firmly establishing in Lancashire the textile industry which has been the main strength of English trade throughout the centuries since his day. There still stands in the older part of Salford the half timbered, many gabled inn of the Bulls Head, a portion of which is contemporary with Sir John, at which period it was changed from the private dwelling of a leading family in the town to an inn, where the merchants could be lodged. Fit it's sign was chosen the 'Bulls Head,' the Radclyffe crest, out of compliment to the Ordsall knight who had set the feet of his fellow burghers on the high road towards a greater prosperity.
Sir John married Lady Joan de Holland, the widow of Sir Hugh Dutton. Her father was Sir Robert Holland, the particular favourite of Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, and his foremost lieutenant. When Lancaster became chief minister of the realm in 1314, he caused Sir Robert to be summoned to Parliament as Lord Holland, which title he retained until the execution of Earl Thomas in 1322. Holland took part in the rebellion of the Earl, and forfeited all his lands. This forfeiture was reversed by Edward the Third in 1228, but in the October following, Sir Robert was murdered by certain followers of Henry of Lancaster, who regarded his alleged cowardice as responsible in part for the failure of the plot against Queen Isabella and Roger Mortimer. His eldest son, another Sir Robert, distinguished himself in the French war, and was the ancestor of Lord Lovel, one of the favourites of Richard the Third, and of the Hollands, Dukes of Exeter. Another son, William, was the father of Thurstan Holland of Denton, by Margaret de Shoresworth. His youngest son was Sir Thomas Holland, a soldier of great repute, who married Joan, the daughter of Edmund, Earl of Kent, and was summoned to Parliament as Lord Holland in 1353. Seven years later he was created Earl of Kent and died in Normandy on the 28th December in the same year (1360). His widow, the 'Fair Maid if Kent,' then married Edward, the Black Prince, and was the mother of Richard the Second
By her first husband, Sir Hugh Dutton, Joan Holland had a son, Sir Thomas Dutton, who was Seneschal and Receiver of the Castle of Halton in Cheshire, and Sheriff of Cheshire, 1356-59. One of his descendants was Sir Ralph Dutton, the prominent Royalist, and another was created Baron Sherborne of Sherborne in 1784. After the death of Sir John, Lady Joan married a third husband in Sir Thomas Talbot of Bashall
When Sir John was securely settled in the occupation of Ordsall, he commenced the rebuilding of the manor house, and the main portion of the existing Ordsall Hall is a tangible link between the present day and the gallant and illustrious begetter of the Ordsall Radclyffes.
In 1341 John de Radclyffe acquired from John de Belshaw the latter's interest in the bailiwick of the serjeancy of Rochdale, 'with all its rights to be held of the chief lord of the fee by accustomed service.' The charter is dated at Whalley 18th November 1341, and was witnessed by Richard de Radclyffe, Robert de Radclyffe, John de Clitherowe, and Richard ffyshwycke, Clerk.
Under date of 13th August 1344, John de Radclyffe in named as party to an indenture, with Henry de Haydock and John de Belshaw, as bound by a recognisance of the Statute Merchant to the Earl of Derby in the sum of one hundred pounds, which John de Kynewell, general attorney to the Earl, agreed to commute the payment of fifty two pounds, sixteen shillings and threepence to be paid to him at Michaelmas at the house of John le Fleming in Fridaistrete in London. Presumably this was in connection with the settlement of the Flemish workers in England
At the April Assize held at Preston in 1353, Sir John, as Bailiff of Rochdale, was in dispute with John, the Abbot of Whalley, regarding Puture in Spotland and Castleton. John de Radclyffe claimed for his sub-bailiffs a Puture a day every week of the year, and on two days of the year, a nine o'clock and at supper at the Abbot's table. At the September Assize in the same year, Sir John was called upon to show cause why he had taken two bullocks at Marland in Castleton, belonging to the Abbot, and had detained them until a fine was paid. Sir John's case was that Adam, a former Abbot, held the manor of Marland from Henry de Lacy, Constable of Chester (from whom the Duke inherited), for six shillings per year, but the rent was four years in arrear. The jury eventually found that the Duke was not entitled to rent, and the Abbot did not owe it. The Puture question was not settled until November 1360 when Sir John, as Bailiff, released to the Abbot and Convent his right to Puture in all the will of Castleton and the grange of Whitworth in Spotland for a consideration of twelve shillings per year to himself and his heirs
In 1356 Sir John was in dispute with Richard de Langley and Joan, his wife, regarding certain lands in Salford and Pendleton, and in 1358 he was sued in conjunction with Sir Henry de Trafford, John le Bold of Whittleswick, and Katherine, his wife, respecting an annuity of thirteen shillings and fourpence in Ordsall, which Thomas de Goosnargh alleged had been granted to him by Richard de Hulton
The period of Sir John's settling at Ordsall was the time of the Black Death, and an interesting sidelight is thrown on his character when, at a time lands were going out of cultivation for want of labourers and many men were realising their properties and fleeing with their capital abroad, Sir John chose that time to forsake military distinction and apply himself to the illustrious but no less worthy duty of a landed proprietor, the stay of simple men and a helper of the distressed, ministering to the needs of his neighbours and assisting the prosperity of the commonwealth
Shortly after his settlement at Ordsall Sir John added to his possessions the manor of Moston. For some reason not disclosed Emma, the only daughter of Richard de Moston, granted to Sir John in 1353 her life-interest in the manor of Moston and the rights in the inheritance which her brothers had given to her in 1325. She had previously to her grant to Sir John bestowed these on John de Moston, son of her youngest brother Hugh, and his wife Margaret, daughter of Richard de Tyldesley. After John's death Margaret was married to a second husband in Robert de Bolton. Robert de Moston, Emma's third brother, had a reversion in the lands, and this was claimed by his daughter and heir, Alice, the wife of Hugh de Toft, whose son, Robert de Toft, in 1404, recovered the manor of Moston against Hugh de Moston, son of John and Margaret, and Alice, his wife. After the death of her nephew, John, Emma reclaimed possession of the manor against Robert de Bolton and Margaret, his wife, William, son of Robert de Radclyffe, Alice, daughter of Robert de Radclyffe, and James, son of Henry de Tyldesley, and thereupon regranted it to Sir John de Radclyffe of Ordsall. Emma appears to have died shortly afterwards, and Sir John thereupon confirmed his possession be securing from Hugh de Toft and Alice, his wife, the reversion of a messuage and 40 acres of land
William de Moston, another heir, who held lands in the manor for life after the death of Emma, was present in court and did fealty to Sir John de Radclyffe. The manor of Moston was held by the Radclyffes of Ordsall until 1394, when Sir John of Ordsall, grandson of the original Sir John, gave his lands at Moston, presumably for life, to Henry de Strangeways. After this Sir John's death in 1422, a dispute arose regarding the possession of Moston, and in 1425 a settlement was arrived at whereby his son and heir, another Sir John, was to hold the Moston lands for life, with the remainder to James, the son of Richard de Radclyffe of Radclyffe. The estate remained in the possession of the Tower family until the death of their last heir without issue caused them to pass to the FitzWalter Radclyffes under settlement, and in 1543 Henry, Earl of Sussex, sold Moston Hall to John Reddish. The Ordsall family did, however, retain a portion of the lands in Moston, since Sir William Radclyffe is shown in possession of them at his death in 1568
There was a virulent outbreak of the pestilence in the winter of 1361. It lasted for none months, and in the spring of 1362 Sir John de Radclyffe died, a victim perhaps of the sickness that decimated his tenantry. The postmortem inquisition shows him holding Ordsall by knight's service and a rent of six shillings and eightpence, as well as lands in Flixton and elsewhere, including 40 acres in Salford held by knight's service and twenty shillings rent. The Ordsall estate is therein described as including a hall with 5 chambers, kitchen, chapel, 2 stables, 3 granges, 2 shippons, garner, dovecoat, orchard, a windmill, 80 acres of arable land, and 6 acres of meadow. Eight years before, the manor was described as 'a messuage, 120 acres of land, 12 acres of meadow, and 12 acres of wood.'
Sir John had issue of two sons and three daughters:
i. Richard, the elder son and heir.
ii. John, the younger son, served with his father in the wars in France and was knighted after the battle of Crecy. His first wife was Ellen, daughter of Thomas del Bothe of Salford and Barton, who, amongst many other benefactions, founded the Chantry of St Katherine in Eccles Church, where he lies buried. In his deed of Foundation Thomas del Bothe appointed as his executors Richard, son of Sir John de Radclyffe, John de Radclyffe, his brother and Ellen del Bothe, his wife, and Thomas de Wyche, rector of Manchester Church After the death of Ellen, Sir John married Margaret, daughter of Sir Thomas D'Anyers, of Bradley-in-Appleton, Cheshire, who distinguished himself at the Battle of Crecy by rescuing the Standard of the Black Prince and taking prisoner the Earl of Tankerville, Chamberlain to the King of France. After the death of Sir Thomas, the wardship of his daughter and heiress was given to Sir John de Radclyffe, who after an ecclesiastical enquiry regarding his rights married her. Through her mother, Isabel be Bagguley, Margaret has heiress of Clemency de Cheadle. The Cheadles were a branch of the Duttons, and Sir John's mother was the widow of Sir Hugh Dutton when she married his father Sir John died without issue, and Lady Margaret afterwards was married to Sir John Savage, whose descendants succeeded to the Cheadle estates. Six years later she was again a widow and she was married to a third husband in Sir Piers de Legh, younger son of Robert de Legh of Adlington
iii. Ellen, married William de Fairfax, of Walton, co. York
iv. Julia, married to Henry de Lacy, of Cromwellbotham
v. Amabil, married to Robert de Neville, of Hornby Castle
Child of JOANE DE HOLAND and SIR JOHN RADCLIFF is:
i. RICHARD RADCLIFF, b. Abt. 1301, Ordsall, Lancashire Co. England; d. July 19, 1380, Rossendale, England.
28. RICHARD RADCLIFF was born Abt. 1301 in Ordsall, Lancashire Co. England, and died July 19, 1380 in Rossendale, England. He married MATILDA LEIGH. She was born Abt. 1305 in Booth, Lancashire, England.
Richard de Radclyffe, the son and heir of Sir John, was known as 'Le Puigne' to distinguish him from his cousin Richard of the Tower. In addition to the Ordsall estates he succeeded to his father's offices of Bailiwick of Rochdale and the Stewardship of Blackburn. By his marriage he vastly enhanced his noble status and landed possessions. His wife was Matilda, daughter and heir of Sir John Legh of Booths and Sandbach. In this lady flowed some of the noblest blood in the land. She was descended in the paternal line from Hamon de Legh, Lord of the Mediety of High Legh in the reign of Henry the Second, whose descendants had absorbed by marriage the notable families of Swineshead, Oughtrington, Corona, and Sandbach. By her grandmother, Margaret de Arderne, she was descended from Ralph, Viscount of Bayeux, from the family of Averanches Earls of Chester, and from the noble lines of St. Hillery, Montalt, Orreby, Glanville, and Sackville. The quarterings of this distinguished ancestry were now brought into the Radclyffe shield, and Matilda brought to her husband the manor of Sandbach, a moiety of Mobberley, and other extensive possessions of the Arderne inheritance in the county of Chester Richard was one of the greatest landowners in the counties of Lancashire and Cheshire, for in addition to the wide domains that his wife brought him, he had acquired other portions of the former lands of his own family. Besides Ordsall, he held the manor of Hope within Pendleton, a messuage and 60 acres of land, held by knight's service and a rent of four pounds and two shillings, and Shoresworth, which with Hope had come to the Radclyffes from Margaret de Shoresworth. On his father's death, Richard petitioned for the restitution of lands in Livesey and Tockholes in Blackburnshire, which had been granted to Roger de Radclyffe by Thomas of Lancaster, and had been seized by the Crown on account of the debts which Robert, son of Roger, had left unpaid at his death
Richard was drowned in Rossendale Water, while exercising his official duties, on the Thursday before the feast of St. Margaret in 1380. He had issue by Matilda of a son and a daughter:
i. John, the heir.
ii. Joan, married to James de Bosville of Chevet,co. York, Esquire
Richard was married twice, his second wife being Sybil, daughter and heiress of Sir Robert de Clitheroe of Salesbury, by whom he had a daughter, Joan, married in 1401 to Sir Henry de Hoghton. After Richard's death Sybil was married again to Sir Richard de Maulverer, to whom she bore a daughter, Isabella, who was married to John de Talbot, and whose descendents had Salesbury for their inheritance. The son of John and Isabella was Sir John de Talbot, who married Joan, daughter of Sir John de Radclyffe of Ordsall. Sybil's third husband was Sir Roger de Fulthorpe, Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas in Ireland. In 1388 Sir Roger was convicted at Westminster of 'divers betrayals of trust' and his lands were made forfeit to the King. These included 10 messuages and 100 acres in Flixton, held by knight's service and a rent of seventeen shillings and sixpence, lands called Shagh in Saddleworth Frith of an annual value of ninety shillings, and 6 messuages and 80 acres of meadow with appurtenances, of an annual value of eighty shillings in the township of Quyck in co. York, all held in right of his wife as dower from the inheritance of Richard de Radclyffe. These properties on the death of Sybil reverted to the Lord of Ordsall. Sybil was living in 1406, when the Bishop of Lichfield granted her a licence as Lady of Salesbury for Mass to be celebrated 'submissa voce' within her manor of Salesbury
Child of RICHARD RADCLIFF and MATILDA LEIGH is:
i. SIR JOHN RADCLIFF I, b. Abt. 1343, Ordsall, Lancashire Co. England; d. August 08, 1422.
29. SIR JOHN RADCLIFF I was born Abt. 1343 in Ordsall, Lancashire Co. England, and died August 08, 1422. He married MARGARET TARFFORD. She was born 1338 in Ordsall, Lancashire Co. England, and died August 1434.
Sir John de Radclyffe, son and heir of Richard, was born at Ordsall in 1356, and was twenty-four years old when he succeeded to his inheritance. He lived through the reigns of three monarchs, the disorders of misrule of Richard the Second, the no less lively era of Henry the Fourth, and the valiant awakenings Henry the Fifth inspired. John entered military service at an early age, desiring no doubt to emulate the fame of his grandfather, and was associated with his kinsman, Sir Thomas de Holland, Earl of Kent, half-brother to King Richard. In 1385 he was amongst those chosen by the Earl of Kent to accompany him when he went to take up his appointment as Captain of Cherbourg, and the King's protection was granted to Radclyffe for the safeguarding of his estates during his absence abroad. For some reason his plans were changed; he did not go to Normandy, and the protection was withdrawn. In that year Charles the Sixth of France determined to invade England, and assembled a great army in Flanders, with an armada at the port of Sluys to convey them across. The young King's uncles wisely dissuaded him from the enterprise, and the expedition was abandoned. It is probable that the services of John de Radclyffe were more necessary at home at such a time than they would be overseas. The incompetence of King Richard forced the support of the nation to his uncle, the Duke of Gloucester, whose appointment as head of the Great Council the King was forced to concede. Gradually the power of the Lancastrian party was rising and the Lord of Ordsall was a devoted adherent of that house. John of Gaunt died in 1399, and Richard thereupon seized his immense estates and kept them, notwithstanding his letters patent to the banished Henry of Lancaster permitting him to take possession of his lawful inheritance. According to the Deputy Keeper's Reports, the Radclyffe title to Ordsall was challenged at this time, from which it might appear that Sir John was with Duke Henry in his exile. Within a short time, however, Henry landed at Ravenspur, Richard was deposed, and Lancaster was proclaimed King as Henry the Sixth. Throughout the fourteen years of his reign the new King found Sir John ever a gallant champion of his cause. He fought at Hateley Field, and was amongst those whom King Henry held in constant favour. When Henry the Fifth succeeded his father, Radclyffe like his cousin at Attleburgh was appointed to the personal service of the King, and was given a captaincy in the French war. Though now an elderly man Sir John bore himself with distinction at Agincourt. He was present at the capture of Caen and the Siege of Rouen, and in 1421 was chosen by the King for election to the Order of the Garter. This honour was actually denied him, however, for he died before the Feast of St. George following.
About 1375 he married Margaret, daughter of Sir Henry de Trafford, whose manor house faced the hall of Ordsall across the River Irwell. Sir Henry was a considerable landowner of the county, and a notable knight who had won fame in the campaigns of Edward the Third. Margaret bore him a family of four sons and two daughters, and survived her husband. She is said to have been married again, shortly after Sir John's death, to Robert Orrell, of Turton, though she was then past her sixtieth year. In 1413, the year that Henry the Fourth died, Sir John had a dispute with his sons, and agreed to accept the arbitration therein of Ralph de Radclyffe, son of Sir Ralph of Smithills, apparently with successful result
At the death of Sir John it was found that the Rochdale Bailiwick was worth nothing, as the outgoings exceeded the receipts. In 1430 therefore his heir sold the family interest in the bailiwick and serjeancy of Rochdale to Sir John Byron
Sir John and Lady Margaret had issue as follows:
i. John, the eldest son and heir
ii. Edmund, died in 1446
iii. Peter, died in 1468
iv. Alured, died in 1462
v. Elizabeth, eldest daughter, married to Sir Richard Venables, Baron of Kinderton in Cheshire
vi. Joan, married to her cousin, Robert de Radclyffe of Todmorden, and after his death, to a second husband, Robert de Smethwick of Smethwick
Child of SIR JOHN I and MARGARET TARFFORD is:
i. SIR JOHN RADCLIFF II, b. Abt. 1377, Ordsall, Lancashire Co. England; d. July 26, 1442, Hope Manor, Lancashire, England.
30. SIR JOHN RADCLIFF II was born Abt. 1377 in Ordsall, Lancashire Co. England, and died July 26, 1442 in Hope Manor, Lancashire, England. He married CLEMENCE DE STANDISH March 13, 1395/96. She was born Abt. 1380 in Duxbury, Lancashire, England.
Sir John de Radclyffe, the eldest son and heir, was born at Ordsall in 1377. At the age of nineteen he married Clemency, daughter of High de Standish of Duxbury, a family of notable antiquity in the county of Lancaster. The mother of Clemency was a Standish of Standish, her uncle, Ralph, was Sheriff of Lancashire in 1392, and a cousin, John, was one of the heroes of Agincourt, On their marriage, his father settled on John de Clemency the manors of Hope and Shoresworth, and the young couple made their home at Hope Hall. John, like his father, was a soldier, and served in the French wars, wherein he was accorded the honour of knighthood, and remained in active service until his death. He was forty four years of age when his father died, opening John's succession to Ordsall, and he remained in possession for twenty-one years. That he was an addict to the extravagant fashions of the day is adduced from the fact that in 1428 he was summoned by his brother, Alured, for an offence against the sumptuary laws, a series of edicts passed in the reigns of Edward the Second and Edward the Third and renewed more forcibly under Richard the Second, which sought to restrain undue expenditure on elaborate and fantastic apparel. Proclamations were issued against 'outrageous and excessive multitude of meats and dishes which the great men of the kingdom still use in their castles, ... and persons of inferior rank imitating their example beyond what their stations required of their circumstances could afford.' The lavish hospitality at the hall of Ordsall no doubt made Sir John's brothers anxious, lest their own patrimonial portion should be dissipated
Sir John died 26th July 1442 in his sixty-fifth year holding Ordsall by the ancient services. His wife, Clemency, had predeceased him, and he had married again. To his widow, Joan, he left for the period of her life his lands in Flixton, Shoresworth, Hope, and Tockholes. She bore him no issue, but by Clemency Standish he had four sons:
i. Alexander, eldest son and heir
ii. John, killed in an affray at Little Bolton in the parish of Eccles in 1444, leaving a daughter and heir, Alice, who was married to William Ellcot of Handsworth, co. Chester
iii. Hugh, killed in the same affray as his brother, John
iv. Robert, married Emma, eldest daughter and co-heir of Roger de Mellor, and became the ancestor of the Radclyffes of Mellor
Child of SIR JOHN II and CLEMENCE DE STANDISH is:
i. SIR ALEXANDER RADCLIFF, b. 1401, Ordsall, Lancashire, England; d. 1476.
31. SIR ALEXANDER RADCLIFF was born 1401 in Ordsall, Lancashire, England, and died 1476. He married AGNES HARRINGTON. She was born Abt. 1404 in Hornsby, Lancashire, England, and died 1496.
Sir Alexander Radclyffe, the eldest son and heir of Sir John, was born at Hope about 1401. The inquisitions on the deaths of his father and uncles show an extraordinary disparity in the recorded age at these periods, but the above date seems to be the most acceptable as the date of his birth. Alexander had received from his father a moiety of Flixton on his marriage to Agnes Harrington, and Shoresworth also seems to have been a portion of the dowry. By his marriage to the daughter of Sir William Harrington of Hornby Castle Alexander further enriched the noble blood of his already illustrious line. Through her mother, Margaret Neville of Hornby, Agnes was descended from King Ethelred, through his daughter, Elgiva, who was married to Uchtred, Earl of Northumberland. Their descendant, Robert Fitz-Maldred, Lord of Raby, married Isabel, daughter of Geoffrey, Lord Neville, from whom descended Sir Robert Neville of Hornby, who married Dorothy, daughter of William de la Pole. Margaret Neville was the daughter of this marriage. On the paternal side, Agnes traced her descent from Alice le Fleming, sister and heir of Michael, Lord of Aldingham, and wife of Richard de Cauncefield. Their daughter, Agnes, married Sir Robert Harrington, and had a son, Robert, who married Margaret, daughter and heir of Sir Thomas Banastre, Baron of Newton. Their son, Sir Nicholas Harrington, married Jane, the heir of Sir Thomas English of Wolfege, and Sir William Harrington, father of Agnes, was their eldest son, Lord of Hornby Castle in right of his wife
The Radclyffes of Ordsall had by this time advanced to become one of the most influential houses in the county, and in 1455 Sir Alexander was a knight of the shire. Family feuds were still rampant, especially amongst the younger sons of neighbouring proprietors, where the motive of the quarrel might be trivial, but was sufficient to excite the passions and prejudices of the young hotheads, in whom the ascendancy of military habits and the rough-and-tumble of education of the time encouraged a disposition to satisfy their honour and settle their grievances by taking the law into their own hands. One of these disputes between local Montagues and Capulets came to a head on the Monday after Low Sunday in the year 1444. The Booths of Barton were a powerful landed family, the bounds of whose estates ran partly with the Radclyffe lands. On the day in question John Radclyffe, his brother High, and a party of their friends, including their uncle, Peter Radclyffe, were hunting in the Wheaste, which was part of the royal forest adjacent to their estates. As they approached the manor house of Little Bolton, their way was challenged by William Gawen, the lord of the manor, who had summoned to his support Sir Thomas Booth of Barton, with his sons, Nicholas and Henry, and a strong force of armed retainers. In the fracas that ensued John Radclyffe was slain by one of the Booths, Hugh Radclyffe died at the hands of Lawrence Hyde, of the Barton faction, and the two others of the Radclyffe party, Ralph Oldham and Nicholas Johnson, were also killed. Peter Radclyffe was responsible for the death of Peter Cowapp of Barton. All the delinquents were brought to trial but were acquitted. Subsequently, Sir Alexander again proceeded against the Booths at a later assize, when Henry and Nicholas Booth received sentence of outlawry. In 1455 the Wars of the Roses began with the first Battle of St. Albans, and the Radclyffes were prominent in their support of the Lancastrian cause. At the battle of Wakefield in 1640 Lady Agnes Radclyffe lost her brother, Sir Thomas Harrington of Hornby, and her nephew, Sir John Harrington, who both fell fighting on the King's side. Sir Alexander himself died in 1475, on the 20th July. Lady Agnes survived him fifteen years. They had issue of five sons and three daughters.
i. William, eldest son and heir
ii. Robert, married Elizabeth, third daughter of John Radclyffe of Chadderton, from whom descent the Radclyffes of Foxdenton
iii. Alexander, married Anne Travers of Hampstead in Middlesex, and became the ancestor of a line of Radclyffes settles in the counties of Buckingham and Middlesex
iv.Thomas, had a son Ralph who became the ancestor of the Radclyffes of Hitchin Priory
vi. Isabel, married to Sir James Harrington of Wolfege in Northants. Sir James was knighted at the coronation of Henry the Seventh in 1485
vii.Katherine, married to Thomas Davenport of Henbury in Cheshire
viii. Anne, married to John Talbot, of Salesbury
Child of SIR RADCLIFF and AGNES HARRINGTON is:
i. SIR WILLIAM RADCLIFF, b. 1420, Ordsall, Lancashire Co. England; d. May 15, 1498.
32. SIR WILLIAM RADCLIFF was born 1420 in Ordsall, Lancashire Co. England, and died May 15, 1498. He married JANE TRAFFORD. She was born Abt. 1423 in Of Trafford, Lancashire, England, and died 1490.
Sir William Radclyffe, eldest son and heir of Sir Alexander, was born at Ordsall in 1435. He married Jane, youngest daughter of Sir Edmund Trafford by his wife, Alice, daughter and co-heir of Sir William Venables of Bollin, thus uniting for the third time the ancient lines of Radclyffe and Trafford. Sir Edmund Trafford was skilled in scientific arts and claimed to have discovered a method of transmuting base metals into gold, for which a licence was granted to him and to Sir Thomas Assheton by Henry the Sixth in 1446. He received the honour of knighthood for his gallant conduct at Verneuil in 1424
William Radclyffe was forty years of age when he succeeded his father at Ordsall. He had gained fame in the wars, and been knighted the year before his succession. He was a devout man esteemed for the nobility of his character, and his generous benefactions made him beloved by the people. The Radclyffes both at Radclyffe and Ordsall had shown a deep interest in the founding of the College at Manchester Church, and William's grandfather, Sir John, is amongst those recorded as being present at the ceremony of collegiation in 1422. The chapel of St. George in the Collegiate Church was founded by the Radclyffe family, and Sir William also founded a chantry at the Altar of the Blessed Trinity in the same church, placing therein a window of richly coloured glass, depicting the Trial and Crucifixion of Our Lord, and further adorned with symbols of the Trinity. After his death, Sir William's pious reputation made this chapel a place of devotion and pilgrimage of the part of the country people. To the chaplain celebrating at the Trinity Altar Elizabeth Brereton, widow of John Radclyffe, Sir William's son, bequeathed a Mass Book with cover and clasps, a silver cruet with 'J.R.' on the cover, two towels, a vestment of green and white velvet with bull's heads on the orphreys, and three shillings and fourpence to buy a sacring-bell. Two years later, Robert Chetham and Isabel, his wife, enfeoffed Richard Bexwicke, Sen., Richard Bexwicke, Jun., James Radclyffe, and others, of lands in Salford and Worsley including Domville House in Salford to found a chantry at the Altar of St. George in the Collegiate Church. This latter chapel was held with the manor of Ordsall. The lower choir of the church was for centuries the exclusive burial place of the Radclyffes of Ordsall, and in consequence was known as the Radclyffe Chancel. During the restoration of the church in the nineteenth century a number of fragmentary brasses were taken up and placed in the chapter-house, the matrixes being buried beneath the cement setting for the new pavement of gaudy tiles
In the autumn of 1496 James the Fourth of Scotland was persuaded to invade England on behalf of Perkin Warbeck, and the men of the northern counties stirred into resistance. Realising the hopelessness of their cause by the lack of English response to their proclamation the Scots retired, pillaging the county without mercy. Sir William Radclyffe and his sons were amongst those who hastened to the defence of the north, and whether from wounds received in the battle or from the ravages of illness, they died within a month of each other. John Radclyffe was the first to succumb on the 12th April, and his father and brother William died on the same day, 15th May following. They were buried in the choir of Manchester Church, and one of the recovered brasses previously referred to, showing a knight in plate armour with a sword by his side and his lady in hood and mantle with the effigies of six female children at her feet, is indubitably the memorial to Sir William and the Lady Jane, his wife.
After his death, his widow was married to Sir James Byron of Clayton, whom also she survived, and was married a third time to Sir John Talbot of Salesbury. The children of Sir William and Lady Jane Radclyffe were:
i. William, eldest son, died unmarried, on the same day as his father, 15th May 1497
ii. John, married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir William Brereton of Brereton, co. Chester, a kinsman of the Venables and descended from the same stock. John died on the 12th April 1497 leaving a family of two sons, Alexander, who succeeded his grandfather, William, and three daughters, Christina, Anna, and Elizabeth
iii. Elizabeth, married to John Domville of Lymme
iv. Anne, married to Sir Thomas Tyldesley of Wardley, and after his death, to Sir Henry ffarington of Wednacre
v. Eleanor, married to Robert Langley, of Agecroft. He received from Henry the Seventh in 1486 a general pardon and an annuity of ten marks for services rendered in the deposition of Richard the Third. Robert commenced the building of Agecroft Hall in Pendlebury, which was demolished in 1925 and taken stone by stone for re-erection in Richmond, Virginia, USA
vi. Clemency, married to James Holme of Darcy Holme, and after his death to John Chetham of Nuthurst
vii. Jane, married to Alexander Hepworth of Hollingworth Isabel, married to Robert Chetham
Child of SIR RADCLIFF and JANE TRAFFORD is:
i. JOHN RADCLIFF, b. 1454, Ordsall, Lancashire Co. England; d. April 12, 1497, Lancashire, England.
33. JOHN RADCLIFF was born 1454 in Ordsall, Lancashire Co. England, and died April 12, 1497 in Lancashire, England. He married ELIZABETH BRERETON Abt. 1475 in Lancashire, England. She was born Abt. 1458 in Brereton, Cheshire Co. England.
The name Ordsall has Old English origins being the personal name ‘Ord’ and the word ‘halh’, meaning a corner or nook, which has become the modern dialect word ‘haugh’. This, indeed, describes the position of the manor for its boundary on the south side is a large bend in the river Irwell which later became the site of the docks for the Manchester Ship Canal.
The name first appears in print in 1177 when ‘Ordeshala’ paid two marks towards an aid, a feudal due or tax. There was probably a house at Ordsall by 1251 when William de Ferrers, Earl of Derby, exchanged the manor for land in Pendleton which belonged to David de Hulton.
The manor passed into the hands of the Radclyffe family of Radclyffe Tower, nr. Bury, about 1335 on the death of the childless Richard de Hulton. The first twenty years of Radclyffe ownership were very confused because there were several claimants, but in 1354 Sir John Radclyffe finally established his right to inherit the manor on his return from the French wars. During these he was granted the right to use one of the earliest mottoes for services in the battlefield, ‘Caen, Crecy, Calais’. Sir John inherited a manor described in 1351 as a messuage, 120 acres of land, 12 acres of meadow and 12 acres of wood.
Ten years later he had enlarged his house, which included a new chapel for which he received a licence in 1361. When his son Richard died in 1380 the Hall was described as having a hall, five chambers, a kitchen and a chapel. It was associated with two stables, three granges two shippons, a garner, a dovecote, an orchard and a windmill, together with 80 acres of arable land and 6 acres of meadow.
Sir Alexander Radclyffe becomes High Sheriff of Lancashire:
Its associated cruck hall, which could have been similar to the one still existing at Samlesbury, nr. Preston, was replaced by the present Great Hall in 1512 when Sir Alexander Radclyffe (d. 1549) became High Sheriff of Lancashire for the first time. The new hall is typical of others built at that time in the North West, for example at Rufford Old Hall, and is certainly one of the largest, although the absence of a wall fireplace is unusual at this date. As at Rufford, the Hall is distinguished by an elaborate roof structure clearly displaying the skills of the carpenter who built the hall. The large oriel bay with the slightly later small private room above, may be an early addition: a similar bay was added to Samlesbury Hall in the 1530s
Further alterations and additions were made to the Hall in the 17th century. A modest brick house was built in 1639 by Sir Alexander Radclyffe (d. 1654) at the west end and at right angles to the timber framed building which may have been the home of his bailiff since by then Ordsall was no longer his main residence. Later the house was joined to the main building
Sir Alexander was apparently already in financial difficulties and this expenditure, followed immediately by the Civil War during which, as a Royalist, he suffered imprisonment and financial hardship, left his son and heir John in such straitened circumstances that in 1662 he had to sell the Hall to Colonel John Birch.
The Radclyffe family had been connected with the Hall for over 300 years and their family history tells of inter-marriages and feuds with other local families such as the Booths, Leghs and de Traffords. Some sat in Parliament as Knights of the Shire, and Sir Alexander (d. 1549) was High Sheriff of Lancashire on four occasions. Most were knighted for services in battle and took part in Court life: for instance, Margaret Radclyffe (d. 1599) became a favourite Maid of Honour to Queen Elizabeth and was seen at Court in a dress said to have cost one hundred and eighty pounds
Set amongst modern housing and industrial units, Ordsall Hall, the oldest building in Salford, is now a branch of Salford Museums and Art Galleries. It is an architectural gem, and one of the region's finest period houses. When the earliest part of the present building was built, over 600 years ago, it was in the rural setting of a moated site in a bend of the River Irwell. Much later, this became the dockland area of the Manchester Ship Canal which brought with it industry and industrial housing. Over the past 20 years these have been swept away and today the character of the area is once again changing with the development of Salford Quays.
Although the name Ordsall is mentioned as early as 1177, the earliest part of the present building dates from just before 1361 when Sir John Radclyffe was granted a licence for his chapel at Ordsall. A fragment of the wing where the chapel once stood still exists in a small two-storey section just east of the present Great Hall. When he began rebuilding, Sir John had recently returned from fighting in the Hundred Years War and had just established his legal right to inherit the property, which had been in dispute for about 20 years following the death of the childless David de Hulton whose family had owned it since 1251.When Sir John's son died in 1380, the building, which had been described in 1351 as a messuage (little more than a farmhouse), was stated to have a hall with five chambers, a kitchen and a chapel. Associated with it were two stables, three granges, two shippons, a garner, a dovecote, an orchard and a windmill.
The Radclyffe family continued to own it for the next three centuries, and there are records of feuds and alliances with other local families such as the de Traffords and Booths of Barton. Especially during the 16th century the estates expanded by inheritance, marriage and purchase, including the absorption of properties owned by other branches of the Radclyffes of Radclyffe Tower, such as Attleburgh, Norfolk, in 1641 and Foxdenton in 1696. Junior branches of the Ordsall family established themselves at Mellor, Cheshire, and Hitchin Priory, Hertfordshire.
All except the last Radclyffes of Ordsall were knighted, most for service in battle, and some sat in Parliament as Knights of the Shire. One of the most important members of the family was Sir Alexander Radclyffe (c. 1477-1549) who was High Sheriff of Lancashire on four occasions between 1523 and 1548 and it may well be because of his high office, that he decided to rebuild the hall he had inherited on a grander scale. The Great Hall, which replaced the earlier cruck hall, is one of the largest surviving in Lancashire and its quatrefoil timberwork, set in massive uprights, gives the house its distinctive appearance. The polygonal oriel was probably added in the 1530s when a similar one was built at Samlesbury Hall, but shortly afterwards its conical roof was replaced by a small rectangular room which would have been entered from the now demolished east wing. At the west end of the hall is a massive spere truss supporting the cambered tie-beam and all this work is richly moulded. Beyond the screens passage are three doors leading to the former service area - the pantry, kitchen and buttery.
The 16th century and early 17th century was the high point in the fortunes of the Radclyffes and Ordsall Hall. Sir Alexander's great grandchildren attended the court of Queen Elizabeth, where Margaret Radclyffe, d. 1599, was a favourite Maid of Honour and was seen wearing a dress said to have been worth £180 even at that date.
At the end of the seventeenth century the estate was sold to the Oldfield family of Leftwich, nr. Northwich, and again in 1704 to John Stock, a trustee of Cross Street Chapel. His son’s executors sold the property in 1756 to Samuel Hill of Shenstone, Staffordshire, on whose death two years later it passed to his nephew, Samuel Egerton of Tatton. The Stocks were almost certainly the last owners to live in the Hall for the two wings were probably occupied by tenants by 1700, the Stocks retaining for their own use the central section consisting of ‘a large hall, longe dineing room, a chapple, six rooms on a floor, with brewhouse, large courts, stable, etc.’
Children of JOHN RADCLIFF and ELIZABETH BRERETON are:
i. ANNE RADCLIFF, b. 1476, Wymerly, Lancashire, England.
ii. SIR ALEXANDER RADCLIFF, b. 1476; d. February 05, 1547/48, Ordshall, Lancashire Co. England.
iii. CHRISTINA RADCLIFF, b. Abt. 1478.
iv. ELIZABETH RADCLIFF, b. Abt. 1480.
34. ANNE RADCLIFF was born 1476 in Wymerly, Lancashire, England. She married SIR ROGER DALTON, son of SIR DALTON and ELIZABETH FLEMING. He was born Abt. 1470 in Of Dalton Hall, Croston and Mawdesley.
Hundreds of years before the Ratcliff's came to American shores, our ancestor Ivo de Tailbois (or "John Talbot" in English) arrived in England the same year William the Conqueror overtook the country, 1066. Without doubt Ivo assisted William in the battles that took place and may have even been related to him. Ivo was born about 1022 in Anjou or Normandy, France. Ivo's family was one of the most illustrious in Normandy, and his brother was the Earl of Anjou. Ivo was known as "Baron of Kendal." Ivo married Lucia, a daughter of Earl Aelfger. Lucia was clearly of royal line, being the granddaughter of Gruffydd, the King of Wales.
Note: Read the history of the Dalton / Radcliff / Ivo de Taillebois, Earl of Anjou line, by Rodney Dalton.
Ivo's great-grandson, Nicholas Fitz-Gilbert de Tailbois, was a knight. He was given the manor of Radeclive from his lord, and may have built Radcliffe tower.
The tower and manor are located near the town of Radcliffe in Lancashire, England. Nicholas was often called Nicholas "de Radcliffe," meaning of or from Radcliffe because he lived near the town and owned the manor by that name. His children and other descendents were also called "de Radcliffe" and eventually the "de" was dropped. Thus our family has the distinction of being named after the manor and town in which our ancestor, Nicholas, lived. The town was named Radcliffe because it is located along the red banks (red cliffs) of the Irwell River.
Roger Dalton of Croston was born about 1470. Married:
1) Anne Radcliff.
2) Miss Standyce - no issue
3) Miss Farynton - no issue
4) Jane Jakes - issue
By 1500, Richard's son, Roger was associated as heir with his father in the grant of various lands in Croston and Mawdesley, but reserving the Manor and demesne lands. The various deeds and documents show that just as Richard had gone further afield, and established himself at Croston during his father's lifetime, so Roger was doing the same thing, and building up a family inheritance of increasing value. He is described on the pedigree as "of Dalton Hall, Yorks, and after, of Croston."
Roger married Anne, a daughter of Sir John Ratclyff. Anne was born in Wymerly in about 1475. In the Herald's Visitation of Lancashire in 1613, Roger is the earliest Dalton ancestor named in connection with the Ratclyffs. The date of their marriage is not known, but as a grant of various tenements in Bispham was made to Roger's son William as early as 1500, it must have taken place some time before that.
The Ratcliff or Radclyff family, the Ancestor says "were truly among the most ancient Lancashire families." (See Genealogists Magazine, Vol. IX, p. 137 (March 1941) (Review of Book of the Radclyffs 1940). Anne Ratcliff's family descended directly from King Henry II of England through his mistress, Rosemund, and their son William, Earl of Salisbury 1173-1225.
In 1525 Roger Dalton's name is on the list of the land-owners in Croston Parish contributing to the Subsidy, others being Thomas Ashton, Henry Banastre, Robert and Bartholomew Hesketh, and a few others. He was associated with his father in 1527 in the making of a grant, which mentions William Dalton the elder, his uncle, as still living then. Roger Dalton was the husband of no less than four wives, and the father of at least 16 children. Roger and his first wife, Anne Ratcliff, had:
1. Roger, who left no issue.
2. Sybell, married William Wolberd Draper and reportedly left no issue.
3. Thomas, born 1508.
4. William was born in 1513 in Byspham, Lancashire Co. England.
Roger's second wife was a Miss Standyche, and his third a Miss Farynton, but he had "no issue by his second or third wifes. " He made up for it by his 4th wife, Jane, daughter and one of four heirs of Roger Jakes of Barkemsted and of Mawde Shordyche. Jane gave him 8 sons and 5 daughters:
I. Lawrence. He married Dorothy Bream. He became a Herald, Norroy King of Arms. His line still survives in the year 2000. Lawrence died on December 13, 1561, and is buried at St. Dunstan's in West London.
2. Margaret who married, first, Richard Pawley of London, Fishmonger, who was the father of two children: Walter and Dorothy Pawley. She married, secondly Thomas Weston of London, a tailor.
3. Anne. She married Thomas Baker of Barkensted. There is no doubt that this was the Berkhamsted, within 30 miles of London, in Hertfordshire, which was Jane Jakes' native place. Anne Baker had five children.
4. Cyssely, who married Chygwell of Essex.
5. Elizabeth who married Francis Colbarne and had two girls.
6. Daughter (no name given) married first Richard Nott/Knott of London "ale bruer", and secondly, Robert Vady.
7. Other sons did not survive.
Evidently Roger Dalton's second family (as adults) migrated in force to London. But out of this whole great family, only two males survived to carry on the family name - William (our line) and his half brother, Lawrence.
Roger is described in the pedigree as of Dalton Hall in Yorkshyre and after of Croston. He was still possessed of lands in Yorkshire at the date of his will, but presumably moved to Croston at some stage. Perhaps on succeeding at the death of his father.
The will of Roger Dalton was proved in the Prerogative Court of the Archbishop of Canterbury and I have obtained from the Public Record Office (ref 11/29) a photocopy of the enrolment of the will and of a document enrolled with it in the records of the Court. Both are in Latin, sometimes much abbreviated, and are not easy to transcribe. I may have made some mistakes in my transcriptions, but I think they are substantially accurate. I think that for some of the information they give, they are worth transcribing fairly fully.
The will reads:
"In the name of God Amen the tenth day of March in the year of our Lord 1531 1 Roger Dalton Knight of sound mind and good memory but sick in body make my will in this form. First I bequeath my soul to omnipotent God and the blessed Mary and all the saints and elect of the church and my body to be buried in a small religious tomb in the church of Saint Michael the Archangel of Croston in the chancel of the same church with the permission and the provision of the curate of the same for the time being in office next to the tomb of my father (corpus quo meum ad sepeliend in parva sepultura ecclesiastiva sancti Michis Arch ecclie de Croston in cancello eiusdem cum licencia et providencia curati siusdem tunc pro tempe existen juxta sepultur patris mei). Then I give and bequeath a mortuary payment to the vicar of the same church according to the Act made and constituted by the King. Next I give and bequeath to my daughters, Anne, Margaret, Joan and Elizabeth two hundred marks. Then I give and bequeath to my son Richard, four marks yearly until he be promoted to some benefice of ten pounds or more a year (donec sit promotus ad aliquot benefice decem librarum annuatim aut ultra) And I wish that all other things are at the disposition of Roger Jakes, Thomas Jakes and my son Richard whom I ordain make and constitute my true and lawful executors that they themselves may dispose for the benefit of my soul or as may seem better to them Then I ordain and constitute Henry Faryington, Knight Richard Bonaster, Bankes Knight and Richmond supervisors of this my testament and will. Then I wish that any debts not paid at the date of my death may be paid out of my goods. In witness of which things I have placed on this my will of one sheet of paper my seal, Given the day and year above stated."
The will was proved in London on the 6th December 1543 by Roger Jakes and Richard Dalton.
Enrolled with the will in the Prerogative Court records is a document even more difficult to transcribe than the will and also in Latin. But in substance I think it says;
"Know all men present and future that I, Roger Dalton, Knight, have given determined and by this my document confirmed to Anthony Lathom, gentleman, Thomas Bond, Vicar of the Church of Croston, Richard Clerk, Vicar of the Church of Leigh and Adam Bonaster, all my messuages, lands, tenements, meadows, grazings, pastures, rents and all their appurtenances in Dalton in the County of Yorkshire (in Dalton in comitate Eboraci) to have and to hold all and singular these messuages, lands, tenements and other premises aforesaid to Anthony Lathom, Thomas Bond, Richard Clerk and Adam Bonaster and their assigns for ever to the use and intent of fulfilling this my last will and testament annexed to this document so that after fulfilling the said will all the said messuages, lands, tenements and other premises may remain wholly and rightly to the heir's of me the said Roger in perpetuity."
There then follow sentences in which Roger appears to say that he and his heirs will warrant and defend all the said premises to Anthony Thomas, Richard and Adam against all men and he appoints Thomas Lathom as his lawful attorney to obtain possession of all the said premises for Anthony Thomas, Richard and Adam.
The document was sealed by Roger with his seal in the presence of John Smyth, chaplain George Nelson, Thomas Graveson, John Stopforth and others on the 10th day of March in the 23rd year of the reign of King Henry VIII (1531).
Children of ANNE RADCLIFF and SIR DALTON are:
i. ROGER DALTON.
ii. SYBELL DALTON, m. WILLAM WOLBERD DRAPER.
iii. THOMAS DALTON, b. Abt. 1508.
WILLIAM DALTON, b. 1513, Byspham, Lancashire Co. England; d. 1543, Byspham, Lancashire, Co. England.
35. WILLIAM DALTON was born Abt. 1513 in Byspham, Lancashire, England. He married (1) MARGARET TERBROKE Abt. 1520. He married (2) JANE TOWERLY2ND WIFE), daughter of SIR JOHN TOWERLY. She was born Abt. 1515 in of Lancashire, Co. England.
Children of WILLIAM and JANE TOWERLY are:
i. ROBERT DALTON OF THURNHAM HALL, b. Abt. 1529; m. ANN KITCHIN.
ii. ROGER DALTON, b. Abt. 1531, Byspham, Lancashire, England; d. 1588,
Holborn, London, England.
iii THOMAS DALTON, b. Abt. 1533.
iv.. ANNE DALTON, b. Abt. 1534.
v. RICHARD DALTON, b. Abt. 1535.
vi. MARJERY DALTON, b. Abt. 1537.
36. ROGER DALTON was born Abt. 1531 in Byspham, Lancashire, England, and
died 1588 in Holborn, London, England. He married (2) MARY WARD Abt. 1550.
She was born Abt. 1534 in Pillings, Lancashire Co, England.
Children of ROGER and MARY WARD are:
i. WALTER DALTON I, b. Abt. 1552, Pillings, Lancashire Co, England; d. Abt.1619, Witney, Oxfordshire, England.
ii. JOAN DALTON, b. Abt. 1560; d. April 28, 1585.
iii. MILLICENT DALTON, b. 1570, Pillings, Lancaster Co. England; m. CHRISTOPHER BRINDLE; b. Abt. 1566, Of Pillings, Lancaster Co. England.
iv. ROBERT DALTON, b. 1575.
v. ANNE DALTON, b. 1576, Pillings, Lancaster Co. England; m. JOHN CALVERT;
b. Abt. 1572, Of Pillings, Lancaster Co. England.
vi. THOMAS DALTON, b. 1577.
vii. RICHARD DALTON, b. Abt. 1580, Chorley, Lancaster Co. England.
37. WALTER DALTON I was born Abt. 1552 in Pillings, Lancashire Co, England, and died Abt. 1619 in Witney, Oxfordshire, England. He married MARGARET ?Abt. 1580. She was born 1555 in Lancashire, England, and died Bef. 1619 in Witney, Oxfordshire, England.
Children of WALTER and MARGARET are:
i. WALTER DALTON II, b. Abt. 1582, Whitney, Oxfordshire, England; d. Abt.1657.
ii. EDWARD DALTON, b. Abt. 1584, Whitney, Oxfordshire, England.
iii. JONE DALTON, b. Bef. 1585; d. April 28, 1585.
iv. ELIZABETH DALTON, b. 1586, Curbridge, Oxford, England; d. 1587,
v. Curbridge, Oxford, England; m. THOMAS RICHARD; b. Abt. 1595, Curbridge, Oxfordshire Co. England.
vi. ANDREW DALTON, b. Abt. 1588.
vii. LEONARD DALTON, b. Abt. 1595.
38. WALTER DALTON II was born Abt. 1582 in Whitney, Oxfordshire, England,and died Abt. 1657. He married (1) JOANE. She was born Abt. 1582. Hemarried (2) ELIZABETH Abt. 1602 in Curbridge, Oxford, england. She was born 1582 in Curbridge, Oxford, England, and died 1651 in Curbridge, Oxford, England.
Children of WALTER and ELIZABETH are:
i. WALTER DALTON III, b. Abt. 1603, Witney, Oxfordshire Co. England; d.1666, Pembrey, Carmarthenshire Co. Wales.
ii. CHARLES DALTON, b. Abt. 1605, Whitney, Oxfordshire, England; d. 1651,Worcestor, England.
iii. ELIZABETH DALTON, b. Abt. 1609, Whitney, Oxfordshire, England.
iv. THOMAS DALTON, b. Abt. 1611, Whitney, Oxfordshire, England; d. 1651, Wochestor, England.
v. WILLIAM DALTON, b. Abt. 1614, Whitney, Oxfordshire, England; d. 1651, Worcestor, England.
vi. ANDREW DALTON, b. Abt. 1616, Whitney, Oxfordshire, England; d. 1721; m. REBECCA SKINNER; b. Abt. 1620, Witney, Oxfordshire co. England.
vii. JOHANNA DALTON, b. Abt. 1618, Whitney, Oxfordshire, England; m. MR. J HOSKYNS; b. Abt. 1618, England.
39. WALTER DALTON III was born Abt. 1603 in Witney, Oxfordshire Co. England, and died 1666 in Pembrey, Carmarthenshire Co. Wales. He married JANE NEEDHAM Abt. 1638 in Pembrey, Wales. She was born Abt. 1607 inCambridge, Oxfordshire Co. England, and died in Pembrey, Wales.
Children of WALTER III and JANE NEEDHAM are:
i. CHARLES DALTON, b. 1639, Whitney, Oxfordshire, England; d. October 23, 1707, Penybedd, Pembrey, Carmarthenshire, Wales.
ii. THOMAS DALTON, b. 1643, Witney, Oxfordshire, England; d. Abt. 1644, Witney, Oxfordshire co. England.
iii. ORMAND DALTON, b. 1645, Whitney, Oxfordshire, England; d. Abt. 1646, Witney, Oxfordshire, England.
iv. JOHN DALTON, b. 1647.
v. WALTER DALTON IV, b. 1648, Witney, Oxfordshire, England; d. Abt. 1649, Witney, Oxfordshire, England.
vi. JAMES DALTON, b. 1650, Whitney, Oxfordshire, England; d. May 18, 1721, Caldicote Farm, Pembrey, Wales.
vii. JOHANNA DALTON, b. 1653, Pembrey, Carmarthanshire, England; m. JAMES BUTLER.
viii. MARGARET DALTON, b. 1657.
40. JAMES DALTON was born 1650 in Whitney, Oxfordshire, England, and died May 18, 1721 in Caldicote Farm, Pembrey, Wales. He married JOYCE VAUGHAN 1677, daughter of ROWLAND JR. and UNKNOWN. She was born 1647 in Trimsaran, Pembrey Parish, Carmarthanshire, Wales, and died March 10, 1730/31 in Caldicote Farm, Pembrey, Wales.
Children of JAMES and JOYCE VAUGHAN are:
i. JOHN DALTON, b. 1678, Pembrey, Carmarthanshire, Wales; d. February 22, 1723/24, at Clog Y Fran, St. Clears, Carmartenshire.
ii. JAMES ORMANDE DALTON, b. 1680, Pembrey, Carmarthanshire, Wales; d. February 13, 1761, Llanelly, Carm. Co. Wales.
iii. CHARLES DALTON, b. 1682, Of Court House, Pembrey, Carmarthanshire, Wales.
iv. RICHARD DALTON, b. 1683, Pembrey, Carmarthanshire, Wales; d. October 03, 1742, Llanelly, Carmarthenshire Co. Wales.
v. EDWARD DALTON, b. 1685, Pembrey, Carmarthanshire, Wales; d. 1766, Llanelly, Carmarthenshire Co. Wales.
vi. THOMAS DALTON,VICAR OF DAUELLY, b. 1688, Pembrey, Carmarthanshire, Wales; d. 1737, St. Clears, Carmarthanshire, Wales.
vii. MARGARET DALTON, b. Abt. 1690, Of Caldicot House, Pembrey, Carmarthanshire, Wales; m. ANTHONY MORRIS, 1712; b. Abt. 1690, Gower, Wales.
41. JAMES ORMANDE DALTON was born 1680 in Pembrey, Carmarthanshire, Wales, and died February 13, 1761 in Llanelly, Carm. Co. Wales. He married AYLIFFE EDWARDS Abt. 1704 in Pembrey, Wales, daughter of JOHN EDWARDS and DOROTHY ELLIOT. She was born Abt. 1693 in Rhyd-y-gors (St. Clears), and died May 17, 1731 in Pembrey, Carmarthanshire, Wales.
Children of JAMES and AYLIFFE EDWARDS are:
i. LETITIA DALTON, b. April 08, 1712, Pembrey, Carmarthanshire, Wales; d. April 26, 1783, Llanrhidian, Grwer, Glamorgan.
ii. JAMES DALTON, b. June 23, 1713, Pembrey, Carmarthanshire, Wales; d. February 13, 1766, Of Lettyvychan, Pembrey.
iii. DAVID DALTON, b. January 12, 1724/25, Llanelly, Carmarthenshire Co. Wales.
42. JAMES DALTON was born June 23, 1713 in Pembrey, Carmarthanshire, Wales, and died February 13, 1766 in Of Lettyvychan, Pembrey. He married MARY BONVILL Abt. 1731, daughter of WILLIAM BONVILL and CATHERINE ROGER. She was born October 01, 1706 in Pembrey, Carmarthanshire, Wales, and died March 23, 1779 in St. Peters, Carm. Co. Wales.
Children of JAMES and MARY BONVILL are:
i. THOMAS DALTON2, b. November 25, 1731, Pembrey, Carmarthanshire, Wales; d. Abt. 1791, New York State; m. MARY (POLLY) FREELAND; b. 1743, Ireland; d. Abt. 1807.
ii. MARY DALTON, b. 1734.
Here is where Thomas Dalton came to American. Start with his son John Dalton Sr. and go down through your own correct lines to the present time.
(Rod Dalton’s pedigree below)