ENGLISH MEDIEVAL SOLDIERS

The information provided below was extracted by DGS North American Secretary Karen Dalton Preston from work underwritten by the The Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) in the UK.

The AHRC was awarded a Research Grant worth just under 500,000 to Dr Adrian Bell of the ICMA Centre and Professor Anne Curry of the University of Southampton to challenge assumptions about the emergence of professional soldiery between 1369 and 1453. The project has an innovative methodological approach and produced an on-line searchable resource for public use of immense value and interest to genealogists as well as social, political and military historians. The project employs two Research Assistants over three years and also includes one Doctoral Research Studentship - all of whom began work on 1st October 2006. The whole team is working on a jointly authored book, conference papers, and articles. Note that this is an on-going project, and one should check for upadtes to the databases periodically.

Information on soldiers has been taken from from the AHRC-funded 'The Soldier in Later Medieval England Online Database', 25 July, 2009.

This page was added to the Databank 25 July, 2009

Muster Roll Database

These are taken from muster rolls, housed in The National Archives (TNA), for the years 1369 - 1453. These are working documents that would probably have been drawn up in advance of a campaign, and then annotated at least once, during a formal muster at the port of embarkation. They represent mainly overseas expeditions.
The process of raising armies in England was highly bureaucratic and driven by the Exchequer with their obsession for accounting for monies being spent. Forces were raised by indenture (a contract), which specified size, rank, length and location of service. The expeditionary force was subject then subject to muster and review. Thus the muster rolls themselves are annotated with soldiers who have not turned up for service or who have not 'passed muster', deaths, promotions and replacements.

First Name

De

Surname

Rank

Captain Name

Commander

Year

Nature of Activity

Status

Edmund

 

Dalton

Archer

Holand, John, Sir

Huntingdon, John Holand, Earl of

1439

Standing force, Acquitaine

 

Henry

 

Dalton

 

 

Exeter, Thomas Beaufort, Duke of

1417

Garrison

 

Henry

 

Dalton

Man-at-arms foot

Luttrell, Hugh, Sir

Exeter, Thomas Beaufort, Duke of

1418

Garrison

 

John

 

Dalton

Man-at-arms

Windsor, William de

Windsor, William de

1371-1372

Standing force Ireland

 

John

 

Dalton

Archer

Nottingham, Thomas de Mowbray, Earl of

Nottingham, Thomas de Mowbray, Earl of

1389-1390

Standing force Scotland (East March)

 

John

 

Dalton

Archer

Godard, Henry

Henry V

1415

Exped France

 

John

 

Dalton

Archer

Beaufort, Thomas, Earl of Dorset

 

1415-16

Garrison, Harfleur

 

John

 

Dalton

Archer

Fitz Hugh, Henry, Lord

Gloucester, Humphrey, Duke of

1417

Exped France

 

John

de

Dalton

Man-at-arms

Clifford, John, Lord

Gloucester, Humphrey, Duke of

1417

Exped France

 

John

 

Dalton

Archer

Neville, John, Sir

Gloucester, Humphrey, Duke of

1417

Exped France

 

John

 

Dalton

Archer

Leyhun, Thomas

Gloucester, Humphrey, Duke of

1417

Exped France

 

John

 

Dalton

Man-at-arms

Gray, Ralph, Sir

York, Richard, Duke of

1441

Exped France

 

John

 

Dalton

Archer

Beaufort, John, Duke of Somerset

Beaufort, John, Duke of Somerset

1443

Exped France

 

John

 

Dalton

Man-at-arms

Cusak, Thomas, Sir

Beaufort, John, Duke of Somerset

1443

Exped France

 

John

 

Dalton

Man-at-arms foot

Luttrell, Hugh, Sir

Exeter, Thomas Beaufort, Duke of

1418

Garrison

 

John

 

Dolton

Archer

Nottingham, Thomas de Mowbray, Earl of

Nottingham, Thomas de Mowbray, Earl of

1389-1390

Standing force Scotland (East March)

 

John?

 

Dalton

Archer

Nottingham, Thomas de Mowbray, Earl of

Nottingham, Thomas de Mowbray, Earl of

1389-1390

Standing force Scotland (East March)

 

Peter

 

Dalton

Archer

Nottingham, Thomas de Mowbray, Earl of

Nottingham, Thomas de Mowbray, Earl of

1389-1390

Standing force Scotland (East March)

 

Richard

 

Dalton

 

Nottingham, Thomas de Mowbray, Earl of

Nottingham, Thomas de Mowbray, Earl of

1389-1390

Standing force Scotland (East March)

 

Richard

 

Dalton

Archer

Leyhun, Thomas

Gloucester, Humphrey, Duke of

1417

Exped France

 

Richard

 

Dalton

Archer

Leyhun, Thomas

Gloucester, Humphrey, Duke of

1417

Exped France

 

Richard

 

Dalton

 

 

Exeter, Thomas Beaufort, Duke of

1417

Garrison

 

Robert

 

Dalton

 

 

 

1383-1386?

Not known

 

Robert

 

Dalton

Archer

Arundel, Richard Fitz Alan, Earl of

Arundel, Richard Fitz Alan, Earl of

1387

Exped Naval

 

Robert

 

Dalton

Archer

Hake, Andrew, Sir

Arundel, Richard Fitz Alan, Earl of

1388

Exped Naval

 

Robert

 

Dalton

Archer

Arundel, Richard Fitz Alan, Earl of

Arundel, Richard Fitz Alan, Earl of

1387

Exped Naval

 

Robert

 

Dalton

Archer

Braine, John, Sir

Scrope, Stephen le, Sir

1395-1397

Standing force Ireland

 

Robert

 

Dalton

Archer

Braine, John, Sir

Scrope, Stephen le, Sir

1395-1397

Standing force Ireland

 

Robert

 

Dalton

Archer

Braine, John, Sir

Scrope, Stephen le, Sir

1395-1397

Standing force Ireland

 

Robert

 

Dalton

Archer

Braham, John, Sir

Scrope, Stephen le, Sir

1395-1397

Standing force Ireland

 

Robert

 

Dalton

Archer

Braine, John, Sir

Scrope, Stephen le, Sir

1395-1397

Standing force Ireland

 

Robert

de

Dalton

Archer

Scrope, John Lord, of Masham

 

1421

Exped France

 

Robert

 

Dalton

Archer

Umfraville, Gilbert, Sir

Gloucester, Humphrey, Duke of

1417

Exped France

 

Solomon

 

Dalton

Archer

Nottingham, Thomas de Mowbray, Earl of

Nottingham, Thomas de Mowbray, Earl of

1389-1390

Standing force Scotland (East March)

 

Thomas

 

Dalton

Man-at-arms

Windsor, William de

Windsor, William de

1371-1372

Standing force Ireland

 

Thomas

 

Dalton

Archer

Botreaux, William, Lord

Henry V

1415

Exped France

Yeoman/Valettus

Thomas

 

Dalton

Archer

Beaufort, Thomas, Earl of Dorset

 

1415-16

Garrison, Harfleur

 

Thomas

de

Dalton

Archer

Ashton, William

Bedford, John, Duke of

1420

Exped France

 

Thomas

 

Dalton

Man-at-arms

Chamberlain, William, Sir

Henry V or Henry VI

 

Standing force, France

 

Thomas

of

Dalton

Man-at-arms

Beaufort, John, Duke of Somerset

Beaufort, John, Duke of Somerset

1443

Exped France

 

William

 

Dalton

Archer

Percy, Thomas, Sir

Percy, Thomas, Sir

1385

Exped Naval

 

William

 

Dalton

Archer

Eure, Ralph, Sir

Percy, Henry, Earl of Northumberland

1383 X 1385

Not specified (Scottish Marches)

 

William

 

Dalton

Archer

Fitz Hugh, Henry, Lord

Gloucester, Humphrey, Duke of

1417

Exped France

 

William

 

Dalton

Archer

Northumberland, Henry Percy, Earl of

Gloucester, Humphrey, Duke of

1417

Exped France

 

William

 

Dalton

Archer

 

Huntingdon, John Holand, Earl of

1439

Standing force, Acquitaine

 

 

Garrison Database

The records are drawn from mainly French repositories and record service for the English crown, in the occupation of Normandy from 1415 - 1453. The data currently accessible here are accurate, but are not fully complete at the moment.

First Name

De

Surname

Rank

Captain Name

Lieutenant

Field Commander

Nature of Activity

Location

Date

Edmund?

 

Dalton

Archer

Talbot, John Lord

Talbot, John Lord

No garrison/field

Louviers + Conches

14410103

Gibbon

of

Dalton

Archer

Fastolf, John, Sir

 

Garrison creu

Rouen

14350612

Guillaume

 

Dalton

Archer

Hilton, Adam

 

Garrison

Neufchatel de Lincourt

14470824

Guillemin

 

Dalton

Man-at-arms

 

 

 

Garrison detachment

relief of Pontoise

14410718

Henry

 

Dalton

Man-at-arms foot

Talbot, John Lord

 

Garrison

Harfleur

14420331

Henry

of

Dalton

Man-at-arms foot

Cotford, Walter, Sir

 

Garrison

Montivilliers

14410618

Henry

of

Dalton

Man-at-arms foot

Cotford, Walter, Sir

 

Garrison

Montivilliers

14410919

John

 

Dalton

Man-at-arms

Talbot, John Lord

Wake, John

 

Garrison

Neufchatel

14370905

John

 

Dalton

Man-at-arms foot

Despoy, Lewis, Sir

 

Garrison

Neufchatel

14350224

John

 

Dalton

Archer

Don, Griffith

 

 

Garrison

Neufchatel de Lincourt

14410329

John

 

Dalton

Man-at-arms

Talbot, John, Lord

 

Garrison

Neufchatel

14370414

John

 

Dalton

Archer

Burgh, Thomas

 

Field

Siege of Pontorson

14270429

John

of

Dalton

Archer

Ogard, Andrew

Welton, Henry

Garrison

Vire

14240322

John

 

Dalton

Man-at-arms

Talbot, John Lord

Crake, John

 

Garrison

Neufchatel

14371228

John

 

Dalton

Man-at-arms

Wake, John

 

 

Garrison creu

Rouen town

14391029

John

 

Dalton

Archer

Burgh, Thomas

 

Garrison

Avranches

14270323

John

 

Dalton

Archer mounted

Fiennes, James

 

Garrison

St Valery

14230929

John

 

Dalton

Archer mounted

Harpelay, John, Sir

 

Official retinue

Cotentin (bailli)

14280701

John

 

Dalton

Archer

Waller, Richard

Salisbury, Thomas Montagu, earl of

Field

Siege of Orleans

14281106

John

 

Dalton

Archer

Scales, Thomas Lord

 

Garrison detachment in field

Siege of Orleans

14290420

John

 

Dalton

Man-at-arms

Dorset, Edmund Beaufort, earl of

Medecroft, Nicholas

Garrison

Neufchatel

14291114

John

 

Dalton

Man-at-arms foot

Despoy, Lewis, Sir

 

Garrison creu

Neufchatel

14350604

John

 

Dalton

Man-at-arms

Talbot, John Lord

 

Garrison detachment in field

Crotoy

14371201

John

 

Dalton

Archer

Talbot, John Lord

 

Garrison detachment in field

Caux (Pays de)

14380617

John

 

Dalton

Man-at-arms

Gerard, Thomas

Gerard, Thomas

Field?

Creil?

14390621

John

 

Dalton

Archer

Don, Griffith

 

 

Garrison

Neufchatel de Lincourt

14401229

Robert

 

Dalton

Archer

Beaufort, Henry, Cardinal

 

Garrison

Honfleur

14320324

Robert

 

Dalton

Man-at-arms

Surienne, Francois, Sir

 

Garrison

Galardon

14420628

Robert

 

Dalton

Archer

 

 

 

Garrison

Eu

14240110

Robert

 

Dalton

Archer

Fauconberg, William Lord

 

Garrison

Vernon

14370725

Robert

 

Dalton

Archer

Fauconberg, William Lord

 

Garrison detachment in field

Siege of Tancarville

14370824

Robert

 

Dalton

Archer

Fauconberg, William Lord

 

Garrison detachment in field

Siege of Tancarville

14370927

Robert

 

Dalton

Archer

Monford, William, Sir

 

Garrison

Honfleur

14380103

Robert

 

Dalton

Archer

Warwick, Richard Beauchamp, earl of

Garrison

Honfleur

14390404

Robin

 

Dalton

Archer

 

 

Talbot, John Lord

Garrison detachment in field

Siege of Tancarville

14370813

Symonet

 

Dalton

Man-at-arms

Gough, Matthew

 

Personal retinue in field

Siege of Louviers

14310821

Thomas

 

Dalton

Archer mounted

Huntingdon, John, Earl of

 

Garrison

Neufchatel

14301226

Thomas

 

Dalton

Archer

Huntingdon, John, Earl of

Baould, Thomas

Garrison/Garrison creu

Neufchatel

14310324

Thomas

 

Dalton

Man-at-arms

 

Somerset, John Beaufort, Earl of

Personal retinue

Field

14400222

Thomas

 

Dalton

Man-at-arms

Salvain, John, Sir

Leaue, John

 

Garrison

Pont Audemer

14470308

Thomas

 

Dalton

Man-at-arms

Morhier, Simon, Sir

Fauconberg, William Lord

No garrison/field

Meaux, Creil and Pontoise

14380916

Thomas

 

Dalton

Man-at-arms

Somerset, John Beaufort, earl of

Personal retinue

14400901

Thomas

 

Dalton

Archer

Stanlowe, John

 

Garrison

Eu

14291001

Thomas

 

Dalton

Archer mounted

Dorset, Edmund Beaufort, earl of

Medecroft, Nicholas

Garrison

Neufchatel

14291114

Thomas

junior

Dalton

Man-at-arms

Hoo, Thomas, Sir

 

Garrison/official retinue

Mantes/Mantes (bailli)

14380228

Thomas

senior

Dalton

Man-at-arms

Hoo, Thomas, Sir

 

Garrison/official retinue

Mantes/Mantes (bailli)

14380228

Thomas

 

Dalton

Archer

Scales, Thomas Lord

Longworth, Elis of

Garrison

Vire

14380330

Thomas

 

Dalton

Man-at-arms foot

Talbot, John Lord

 

Garrison

Montivilliers

14420326

Thomas

 

Dalton

Man-at-arms

 

 

 

Pontaudemer

14480323

Thomas

 

Dalton

Man-at-arms

Salvain, John, Sir

Leaue, John de

Garrison Additional

Pontaudemer

14461123

William

 

Dalton

Archer mounted

Suffolk, William de la Pole, earl of

Salisbury, Thomas Montagu, earl of

Field

 

14280823

William

 

Dalton

Archer mounted

 

 

Garrison?

Falaise

14311128

William

 

Dalton

Man-at-arms

Don, Griffith

 

Dorset, Edmund Beaufort, earl of

Garrison detachment in field

Neufchatel de Lincourt

14391229

William

 

Dalton

Archer mounted

 

 

Field

Caen

14310214

William

 

Dalton

Archer mounted

Talbot, John, Lord

 

Garrison

Neufchatel

14370414

William

 

Dalton

Archer

Willoughby, Robert Lord

 

Garrison

Pont de l'Arche

14300529

William

 

Dalton

Archer

Ogard, Andrew

Welton, Henry

Garrison

Vire

14240322

William

 

Dalton

Man-at-arms

Don, Griffith

 

 

Garrison

Neufchatel

14400322

William

 

Dalton

Archer mounted

Talbot, John Lord

Crake, John

 

Garrison

Neufchatel

14371228

William

 

Dalton

Archer mounted

Willoughby, Robert Lord

 

Field

Siege of St Severin

14320502

William

 

Dalton

Archer

Gower, Thomas

 

Garrison

Evreux

14300411

William

 

Dalton

Archer

Trafford, William, Sir

 

Personal retinue

Marches d'Avranchin

14320714

William

 

Dalton

Archer

Trafford, William, Sir

 

Personal retinue

Mortain and Domfront

14320728

William

 

Dalton

Archer

Asche, Edmund de

Arundel, John Fitz Alan, earl of

Field

Siege of Montfort l'Amaury, Houdan etc

14340303

William

 

Dalton

Archer mounted

 

 

Garrison detachment in field

Champagne, Brie + Normandy

14370911

William

 

Dalton

Archer

Talbot, John Lord

 

Garrison detachment in field

Crotoy

14371201

William

 

Dalton

Man-at-arms

Don, Griffith

Howell, Thomas

Garrison

Neufchatel

14390612

William

 

Dalton

Archer

Somerset, John Beaufort, earl of

Lampet, John

Garrison

Avranches

14390918

William

 

Dalton

Man-at-arms foot

Lansac, Mondot de

 

Garrison

Neufchatel

14451126

William

 

Dalton

Archer

Hilton, Adam

 

Garrison

Neufchatel

14470609

William

 

Dalton

Archer

Hilton, Adam

 

Garrison

Neufchatel

14470929

William

 

Dalton

Archer

Crafford, William, Sir

 

Personal retinue

Field

14320824

Protection Database

This database contains letters of protection and powers of attorney granted and recorded on the Treaty (or French) Rolls (TNA C 67) and Scottish Rolls (TNA C 71) for the years 1369-1453. They represent a very different source to that available in the Muster roll database and should be treated with care. They are both legal instruments that would be taken by soldiers, prior to undertaking military service. However, they only demonstrate for the most part intention to serve, although protections were also sought by others going overseas or to Scotland, for instance in support of the armies as victuallers. The letter of protection protected an individual from prosecution whilst serving overseas; and by a power of attorney an individual could appoint legal representatives to act on his behalf whilst absent. For the reliability of this source for the campaigns of 1387-1388 see Adrian R Bell, War and the Soldier in the Fourteenth Century (Boydell, 2004), pp. 68-79; and for other discussion see Andrew Ayton, Knights and Warhorses: Military Service and the English Aristocracy under Edward III (Boydell, 1994), pp. 157-159 and Michael Prestwich, Armies and Warfare in the Middle Ages: The English Experience (New Haven, 1996), pp. 109-110.

First Name

De

Surname

Captain Name

Type

Date

Duration

Location

John

de

Dalton

Northland, Richard, Sir

Protection

13730510

1 year

Portugal (overseas)

John

de

Dalton

Percy, Henry, Sir

Protection

14020212

1 year

Berwick castle and town

Philip

de

Dalton

Lancaster, John of Gaunt, duke of

Attorney

13730506

1 year

France (overseas)

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